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socl 4461 final exam
Terms in this set (100)
Entering a building, other structure, or vehicle, with the intent to commit a theft
Burglary is commonly used by some offenders as a means to obtain ?quickly
money (or property that can be sold)
•What is ----- used for?
•Meet daily living expenses, including food, shelter, and monthly bills
•Support their children
•Drugs, alcohol, maintain glamorous lifestyle
money from burglary
Others are encouraged and motivated by those with whom they regularly socialize (i.e., significant others, peers, or family) to ??
• ? predominantly introduced to burglary by their significant others
• ? were more likely to become involved through peer networks.
• Social contributors to ? involvement include gang membership, delinquent subcultures, and peer approval and status
when people make decisions they choose based on benefit-risk analysis
rational choice theory
•Benefits, risk as the arguments of the burglar's utility function
rational choice theory
•Benefits of a burglary include ? (items stolen) and possibly also ? (excitement, peer group status).
•effort it takes to travel to location
•commit the burglary and to trade stolen items.
probability and severity of injury in case of
factors that stand in the way of comitting burglary
•Specific to the sanctioning
probability and penalties associated with arrest, prosecution and punishment
another risk of burglary
•defined as the set of places a person regularly performs or has recently performed activities, the habitual routes they take between these places and the area within visual range of these places and routes\
•is perpetrated at those places and times where a motivated criminal's awareness space overlaps with the spatiotemporal distribution of attractive criminal opportunities.
•Whereas the rational choice theory silently assumes that all burglars have full information of all potential target areas, ? emphasizes that offenders will have incomplete knowledge limited to their personal awareness spaces.
crime pattern theory
Burglars' awareness spaces include their ?
former home locations.
•Burglars were found to be more likely to burgle in an area where they had ? than in areas they had not.
Repeat burglary victimization typically involves burglars returning to their ?
•Past burglary ? best predicts future burglary victimization risk
risk peaks ? after the initial burglary
The victimization risk is temporarily increased for nearby homes too, called ?
"near repeat victimization"
Drug Use and Abuse as PrimaryMotivators for Involvementin Burglary: A Comparison ofSelf-Reported DifferencesAmong a Random Sample ofMale and Female Burglars
Joseph B. Kuhns, Kristie R. Blevins, Riane M. Bolin,
and Josie F. Cambareri
? use has consistently been linked to participation in a variety of crimes including burglary
Burglary is generally considered a ? dominated crime
Top reason for committing burglaries was related to their need to acquire ?
drugs or money
•There are ? differences for those who commit burglary as it pertains to drug use
•? burglars appear to be pushed towards burglar to support drug habits.
•It asks us to then consider whether burglary rates would ? in areas where drug treatment resources are highest
A behavior characterized by theft in a store, whatever the desire for the stolen item may be.
•Experienced shoplifters (?) - those who have engaged in prior shoplifting.
•- those who have not previously shoplifted, but have the desire to shoplift and could commit shoplifting given conducive retail store opportunities.
•- those who have not previously committed shoplifting and have high repugnance toward shoplifting in retail stores.
What are the techniques of novice professional or experienced shoplifters?
•1) Exchange for cash-
•no receipt - steal the item - try to return for cash
•Find receipt- steal the item -return for cash
3) buy-steal- recipt
Shoplifting is crime thought to be dominated by women, referred to as?
"pink collar crime"
•What motivates women to shoplift?
•Economic- use the crime as a job to earn money.
•Crime as "work"
•Crime committed for income is a form of work that embodies the same basic structures of work that are not criminalized.
Shoplifting: Work,Agency, and Gender
Gail A. Caputo1 and Anna King1
1.These women do not narrate their personal identities in ways that ? them to any traditional role or notion of gender
1.they are ? and adopt different behaviors naturally and comfortably when they decide to do so.
2.Shoplifting is one of many hustles within the ? economy and the one chosen by certain women as their criminal work specialization.
King and Caputo:
They talk about shoplifting in ? and ? terms, framing it as a job and talking about the occupational dimensions in both feminine and masculine ways.
occupational and gender
There is an organizational structuring to involvement in professional shoplifting
Working relationships with two complementary groups who are primarily male dominated:
1) hacks, drivers, & rides
Those (usually male) city residents whose own criminal work is that of an illegal taxi driver.
hacks, drivers & rides
•Dealings with hacks grow out of the shoplifter's need to
•travel under cover
•to get away from retail locations quickly and efficiently
•and to customers directly.
•Use vehicles that fit in
the hack's role
•What's in it for the hacks
•They're hacking for drugs
•For the money- "instead of getting $5 and take someone across town, they're taking you to shoplift; they're gonna make a hundred or more. They'll bring you wherever you wanted to go."
? take an equal share of a shoplifter's profit without taking on much risk.
The effective management of ? is an important distinction between shoplifters who call the crime work and others whose involvement is not occupational but explained by various motives.
The types of transactions they performwith customers are two step processes that all of the women engaged in.
1) negotiate sale before setting out to the stores
2) return to close the deal with merchandise in hand
Another critical dimension of shoplifting is the technical and this involves three main parts:
preparation before the shoplifting event, shoplifting, and risk management.
A shoplifter must decide what sheis going to shoplift and at which retail stores, how she will travel, and her options for turning over the goods for cash; might be simple, might be complicated
2 parts of planning
store selection, uniform
•Can change...even on same day
•Factor in as much as accessories and makeup
Image changes depending onstore and merchandise they target
uniform for shoplifting
? also means gearing up to take on the criminal risk.
•Consider how long to
•stay to "make the slip" (collect the merchandise)
•"get over" (attract no suspicion)
•Too little time = too risky, raises suspicion
•Too much time = raises suspicion, odd behavior
shoplifter entering store
The ways in which shoplifters deploy strategies exemplifies their ? and the ? with which they deploy strategies to minimize risk.
specializations & fluidity
•Interact with employees of a store just as regular shoppers might
•You have to be able to sell yourself.
•Example: Shopping cart using bulk items to mask small items.
•Example: Shopping cart regulating the volume of the product in the cart
•Trust their instincts
In ? technologies, customers have either reduced or no engagement with store employees in comparison to traditional fixed location employee-assisted checkout. These ? settings could act as criminogenic settings for shoplifters
•both ? & ? shoplifters have a higher shoplifting intention when retail stores allow customers to use their own smartphones for mobile checkout.
•? are reluctant to shoplift when they had to use a store-provided mobile device for scanning and checkout even if they have skills and knowledge to use a store-provided mobile device.
experienced and prospective
•? ranks as the fifth most commonly reported index offense, and fully 95 % of such thefts are reported to law enforcement.
•? has the lowest clearance rate of all index offenses
•? are by far the most common offenders
MTV, MTV, males
•Major roads and areas immediately adjacent to major roads
•Most likely to occur in urban areas
•high risk locations as those locations with large numbers of vehicles present
•Auto dealers and repair shops.
•Church parking lots
target areas for MVT
Researchers generally treated ? as a monolithic crime type, using the same set of explanatory factors to explain all kinds of ? incidents
•satisfy temporary personal needs such as entertainment or short-term transportation
•means to commit other offenses.
•resale, export, or dismantling for spare parts
•Tend to be younger than permanent MVT offenders
•Choose easy and accessible targets that are readily available in their surroundings
temporary MVT offenders
•older and more experienced offenders
•Some transitioned from temporary to permanent MVT as they aged
•Requires that they consider illegal market demand and profit potential when targeting vehicles for theft
•Target relatively expensive vehicles, because inexpensive vehicles are less attractive for both local and foreign black markets
permanet MVT offenders
Many researchers have suggested use of a stolen vehicle's ? as a reasonable proxy measure of temporary and permanent MVT
•? rate positively associated with permanent MVT.
•Permanent MVT rates increased with closer distance to the U.S. ?, but not the U.S-Canada, border.
•? association between the number of auto-related businesses and permanent MVT
Like burglary, auto theft appears to be a ? or at least starts out this way as few thieves begin careers stealing cars on their own
•Initiation is facilitated through interaction with neighborhood peers
•usually older and more experienced males
•a role best described as an "apprenticeship
•novices typically are relegated to the role of "lookout" and passenger
•Those who persist may eventually go off on their own and operate independently or to form their own crew
This paper examines the gendered nature of motor vehicle theft through direct comparison of in-depth interviews with 35 men and women actively involved in auto theft in St. Louis, Missouri.
Establishing Connections: Gender,Motor Vehicle Theft, andDisposal Networks
Thirty of the interviews were conducted during the summer of 2006 and five more were added to this the following summer.
-Sampling was purposive and relied on snowball sampling
-potential interviewees had to:
-(1) have committed at least one auto theft in the month prior to being interviewed,
•(2) have done five or more auto thefts in their lives,
•(3) consider themselves to be actively involved in auto theft.
•The auto thieves ranged in age from 17 to 49, with a mean age of 27 years.
•Twenty-seven were male and eight were female
Establishing Connections: Gender,Motor Vehicle Theft, andDisposal Networks
in establishing Connections: Gender,Motor Vehicle Theft, andDisposal Networks
Initiation was fairly consistent regardless of ?
Some auto-thieves experienced a ? learning process
•how to effect entry and bypass the ignition,
•informed of the types of cars to target,
•how to check for alarms
•Estimating the length of time vehicles can be "safely" displayed in public.
•Formal learning was common among those who began as lookouts and was especially the case among those affiliated with tight-knit crews.
structured learning process for auto-thieves
Comparing experiences at the time of respondents' first direct participation in taking a vehicle revealed stronger ? differences.
•? began in sexually homogeneous groups.
•participation by ? occurred in the company of one or more opposite-sex peers
•? were more inclined to eschew technical effort in favor of patient observation
•? never interacted with the victim whereas women were not afraid to
•? more engaged in the con-side of the crime
gendered takeaways on auto theft
initiation - ?
enactments - ?
•Initiation - largely similar
•Enactments - more variation
-Studies in several cities have shown that about half of all reported crime occurs in under ? percent of all city blocks,
-'at risk' blocks remain fairly constant over time
Crime concentrates at very small units of geography (Think smaller than neighborhoods... streets, and actual addresses)
The law of crime concentration
examined incidents of gun violence between 1980 and 2008. They found incidents of gun violence were stable and concentrated at less than 5 percent of street segments and intersections.
Braga, Hureau, and Papachristos (2010)
examined street segments in the city of Seattle from 1989 through 2002. They found that 50 percent of crime incidents over the 14‐year period occurred at only 4.5 percent of the street segments.
•Weisburd and Amram (2012)
DOES THE LAW OF CRIME CONCENTRATION APPLY ACROSS TIME?
even with variability in crime rates over time (dashed lines), the law of crime concentration remains stable
policy takeaways on violent crime
•If we simply focus on just the ? in these areas doing the crime and lock them up, these areas will continue to see increased crime.
•Treat areas as much as we focus on ?.
individuals x 2
•If we simply focus on just the individuals in these areas doing the crime and lock them up, these areas will continue to see increased crime.
•Treat areas as much as we focus on individuals.
What if I argued that Chicago had more gun violence? What other than gun homicide rates would support my argument?
look at shootings generally
Why are we focused on gun murders?
•Cities are not required to track shootings
•Some that do don't distinguish between fatal and non
•Looking at shootings shows that the cities with the worst gun murder rates do not inherently have the highest rates of gun violence victimization, as measured by shooting victims per capita
Gun murder rates, may better serve as a measure of how ? shootings in a city are than as a measure of that city's overall level of gun violence.
•What helps determine whether you live or die if you are seriously hurt?
emergency medical care
1) The deliberate alteration of physical evidence at an alleged crime scene
2) In an effort to simulate events or offenses that did not occur,
3) where the intent is to re-direct an investigation
• generally involves taking something away or preventing something being left at the scene (i.e. weapon, article of clothing)
a precautionary act
•involves an attempt to prevent identification by introducing something new to the scene or taking an affirmative step, to give the appearance that something entirely different has taken place.
•Affirmative step example -filing a false report (verbal staging) which indicates the significant effort expended to redirect the investigation in such matters.
•? staging occurred the most
•The most typical offender-victim relationship was ?
•? homicide: greatest number of staged crime scenes occurred in domestic homicides.
•Most common type of staging was ?
•The most prevalent method of staging in ? sexual homicide and general ? homicide was arson
partners killing partners
Claire Ferguson and Wayne Petherick 2016 Study was on
Ferguson and Petherick: •? were almost always arranged at these scenes. The ? was often re-arranged or re-positioned.
Ferguson and Petherick: •Writing a fake note was not a usual behavior, why?
•May be explained by the growing awareness of forensic techniques in handwriting comparison.
•Interestingly, all staged notes that were present in this study made reference to the offender at some point.
Ferguson and Petherick:
?- fatal violence was likely to happen during a physical or a verbal argument between involved parties.
? -In this sample, nearly half the cases did not involve the destruction of evidence and attempts to clean up
•Evidence of confrontation
•The prevalence of staged suicides seems to be ?
•What is the motivation behind robbery?
a percieved "pressing need for cash"
what is the role of violence during robbery?
•To gain compliance.
•To prevent from reporting the crime
who wrote How Robberies Succeed or Fail: Analyzing Crime Caught on CCTV.
What might be some things that suggest someone will be successful in committing a robbery?
-perpetrators' emotional display (high emotional energy, tone of voice
-movement and rhythm (own the space)
- clerk buy in
What might be some thing to suggest someone will fail in committing a robery?
- perpetrators' emotional display (lack of confidence)
- movement and rhythm (unable to manage their movement and rhythm)
- perpetrator mishaps
- clerk not fully sold
Does Employee Resistance During a Robbery Increase the Risk of Customer Injury?
•Employee resistance against a perpetrator during a robbery increased customer injury risk. Businesses can train employees to not resist during a robbery, providing benefits for both customers and the business itself.
•Employees resisted a robber in nearly ? of all robbery events.
•Active ? resistance was significantly associated with employee injury
•? being stolen were associated with active employee resistance and employee injury
•? only being stolen was inversely associated with employee injury.
•Implications: Results suggest that employee training in ? can be an important strategy in protecting employees working with the exchange of cash and goods.
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