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APUSH Period 4: 1800-1848
Terms in this set (33)
Political Parties in the 1790s
Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans
-friends with british
-main support in northeast thanks to John Adams
-favored banking and shipping interests
-strong central government
-wanted to assume national debt
-party dies at hartford convention leading to era of good feeling
-thomas jefferson, james madison, james monroe
-smaller government, stronger states
-south and west
-becomes single dominant party during era of good feeling
Political Parties in 1830s-1850s
Democrats vs. Whigs (also Know-Nothings)
-andrew jackson, john c calhoun
-represented "common man"
-pro expansion (manifest destiny)
-support of immigrants (irish and german)
-henry clay, zachary taylor
-american system (national bank, high tariffs, federal funding of internal improvements)
Know-Nothings (American Party)
-anti-catholic (thought they would always vote with the church, not freely)
-anti-immigrant (thought they were economic competition and a threat to society)
- shift from politics favoring the wealthy to politics favoring the common man
- all free white males were given the right to vote, not just property owners. Eliminated class but emphasized race and sex
- favored the patronage system, Laissez faire economics, and relocation of the Indian tribes from the S.East
- he opposed the formation of a federal bank and allowed Second Band of the US to collapse by vetoing a bill to renew the charter
- faced challenge of the "Null and Void" or "Nullification Theory" when S.C claimed that it could ignore or nullify any federal law it considered unconstitutional
- he sent troops to the state to enforce the protested tariff laws, and a compromise engineered by Henry Clay in 1833 settled the matter for time being
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. Helped lead to nullification crisis
In the South, George Fizhugh established the philosophy that slavery was "positive good." It was believed that slavery benefited slaves by providing them with food, shelter, and often Christian religion. Also, Fitzhugh argued that free laborers in northern factories were not treated any better than slaves.
Second Great Awakening
-stressed the importance of achieving perfection
-inspired many reform movements (abolitionism, education reform, prison reform, utopian societies, women's rights, temperance)
-lots of emphasis on democracy and basic human rights
American Colonization Society
A Society that thought slavery was bad. They would buy land in Africa and get free blacks to move there. One of these such colonies was made into what now is Liberia. Most sponsors just wanted to get blacks out of their country.
1770's by "Mother" Ann Lee; Utopian group that splintered from the Quakers; believed that they & all other churches had grown too interested in this world & neglectful of their afterlives; prohibited marriage and sexual relationships; practiced celibacy
led by Joseph smith, had a separate community, polygamy, voted as a unit, was attacked by neighbors so they moved to Utah (move led by Brigham Young)
made production faster, spinning jenny
boats could travel against the current
goods could be shipped further, Erie Canal
expanded rapidly in the 1840s, hurt canals
spread of information (1844 Democratic Convention)
mechanical reaper, steel plow
farmers' daughters worked in factories in 8 hour shifts, lived in boarding houses, worked outside the home
Impacts of cotton
-Used in textile production in the Northeast
-need for expansion
created by Henry Clay; to knot together different US sections into unified economic system; create home market for factory/farm producers by raising protective tariff, strengthening national bank, and financing internal improvements
Irish settled in the...
Germans settled in the...
-increased gap between the rich and poor
-emergence of working and middle classes
-separation between home and workplace
-helped change gender and family roles
-mechanization and new technology/transportation
-more connections between domestic and international markets
-more unskilled labor than farmers
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 - passed by the United States Congress.
q1v,431833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
Trail of Tears (1838)
Andrew Jackson favored pushing all Amerindians west of the MS River. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 provided for federal enforcement of this policy, Jackson defied the Supreme Court in the case of Worcester v. Georgia in 1832, which would allow Indians to stay.
-Above 36°30 war free from slavery
-Below 36°30 was slave
-Missouri was free
-Maine was slave
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
APUSH Period 3: 1754-1800
APUSH Period 5: 1844-1877
APUSH Period 6: 1865-1898
APUSH Period 7: 1890-1945
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