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Kine 408 CH 7-8 (2)
Terms in this set (26)
Vestibular Apparatus and Equilibrium:
- Before discussing how the brain controls motor function, it is important to understand how the body ______.
- ________ located in the inner ear and is:
1. Responsible for maintaining general _______
2. Sensitive to ________.
- Maintains balance;
- Vestibular Apparatus (Semi-circular canals)
1. equilibrium and balance
2. Changes in linear and angular acceleration
Vestibular Apparatus in maintaining Equilibrium:
Refer to Figure 7.15 in notes
* - To the right is the joint, tendon and muscle receptors, in the middle are the eyes and to the left is the vestibular apparatus (ear).
- Any head movement results in ________ which will effect the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei (brain stem). The VA transmits neural info to _______ and ______ located in the brain stem. This then has an effect on the _____ - so we have the _______ (controls eye movement) and the ______ (controls body movement) which ultimately has output to SM.
- So ______, _____, _____, ____ and _____ all help maintain balance.
- Vestibular Apparatus (VA) controls ________ and ______ movement during exercise / physical activity which serves to maintain balance and visually track the events of movement (ex - following the ball with eyes while running)
- stimulation (+) of receptors in the VA
cerebellum and vestibular nuclei;
- Joints, tendons, muscle receptors, eyes and ears;
- head and eye movement
Motor Control Functions of the Brain:
- The brain is subdivided into 3 parts:
- Each structure makes important contributions to ______.
3. Brain Stem
- Regulation of movement
_______ - large dome of brain divided into - right and left cerebral hemispheres.
- The outermost layer of the cerebrum is called the - ________ - composed of tightly arranged neurons and contacts over ______ neurons.
- The cerebral cortex performs 3 very important motor behavior functions:
Refer to slide 9 for the functional areas of cerebral cortex
- Cerebral cortex;
1. Organization of complex movement
2. Storage of learned experiences
3. Reception of sensory information
Motor Control Functions of Brain:
- Initiating Movement:
- Voluntary movement requires muscle contractions that are the result of _______ that begin with the CNS.
- _______ - a localized region of the outer layers of brain (cerebral cortex) located within the cerebrum responsible for - being the _______ (movement plan).
- So your ______ starts from your motor cortex - we have to think about what we do before we do it so we send a signal from brain, down spinal cord (CNS) to peripheral nerves which stimulate SM.
- Neural processes;
- Motor cortex;
origin of neural processing of complex voluntary movement;
- Movement plan
________ - located at the base of posterior region of brain, behind pons and medulla (back bottom)
- The cerebellum:
- Damage to the cerebellum results in ________ and _____.
- The cerebellum helps provide _________ and initiates ______.
- If someone damages their cerebellum (hit from behind in car accident) the person won't have _______ because that area is damaged and b/c it initiates ________, they won't be able to do that.
1. Refines motor patterns from motor cortex
2. Stores more simple or "well trained" motor patterns
- poor movement control and muscular tremor that is most severe during rapid movement;
- smooth, coordinated body movement and initiates fast ballistic movements
- Smooth, coordinated body movements;
_______ - located inside base of skull, just above spinal cord.
- The brain stem is responsible for:
1. Many _______
2. _______ control
- Major structures of the brain stem:
- Brain stem
1. Metabolic functions
2. Cardiorespiratory control
3. Highly complex reflexes
Parts of the brain (From table):
________ - conscious thought processes, intellectual functions; memory storage and processing; conscious and subconscious regulation of skeletal muscle contractions
______ - relay and processing centers for sensory info
______ - centers controlling emotions, autonomic functions and hormone production
______ - processing of visual and auditory data; generations of reflexive somatic motor responses; maintenance of consciousness
______ - coordinates complex somatic motor patterns; adjusts output of other somatic motor centers in brain and spinal cord
_______ - relays sensory info to cerebellum and thalamus; subconscious somatic and visceral motor centers
______ - relays sensory info to thalamus; autonomic centers for regulation of visceral functions such as CV, respiratory and digestive activities
Motor Functions of Spinal Cord:
- ______ - region of brain and spinal cord where nerves conveying general movement patterns are directed to spinal cord and their respective peripheral motor nerves.
- A voluntary movement is translated / refined into appropriate muscle actions - this is called ______ - done by the corticospinal tract.
- Another motor control function of the spinal cord is the ______ - which occurs via a Reflex Arc.
Refer to notes for Figure 7.14
* - when the flexor muscle on one side of the body is stimulated to contract via a ______, the extensor on the opposite side also contracts - this is called ______.
- Ex - when the bicep on left arm is stimulated to flex, it is going to contract and cause the extensor muscle, tricep on right arm to extend the elbow.
-One purpose of a relex is to provide a rapid means of _______ (right side) This is accompanied via reflex action.
- Spinal tuning;
- Withdrawl reflex;
- Withdrawl reflex;
- removing a limb from a source of pain
Refer to notes for figure 7.18
* - shows the block diagram of the structures and processes leading to voluntary movement. Left side is structure, right side is steps in movement plan.
-_______ areas initiate driver to move --> the _____ is doing to design a rough draft of movement --> the _____ and _____ will refine the movement design --> the _____ is going to be the relay station that allows it --> ______ to serve as final executor of motor plan --> ______ will perform execution of desired movements (motor units are the _______ nerves in all the muscle fibers it innervates)
- Subcortical and cortical areas --> Association cortex --> basal nuclei and cerebellum --> Thalamus --> motor cortex --> Motor units (A alpha motor nerves)
Neurotransmitters of the Autonomic NS
- The _____ innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands.
Refer to figure 7.19
* - on left side is brain and spinal cord w/ fibers and on right is the neurotransmitters released from presynaptic and post synaptic neurons to the visceral effectors. The chart sums it up.
- All parasympathetic neurons use ______
- Sympathetic neurons use ____ and _____.
- Autonomic NS
- ACH and NE
Refer to notes for table on - Fiber, Pre-Synaptic Neuron, Neurotransmitter used, Post-synaptic neuron, Neurotransmitter used - Need to know these!
- Figure 7.20 - Regular exercise targets many aspects of brain function and has broad (+) benefits on overall brain health. Exercise promotes an increase in several brain growth factors that lead to improved brain health by improving cognition, neurogenesis and vascular function.
Regular Exercise = Increase in _______ = Increase in _____, _____ and _____.
= Brain growth factors = Cognition, neurogenesis, vascular function
Connective Tissue Covering SM:
- _________ - layer of connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle.
- Means: on or attached to
-________ - Sheath of connective tissue that groups muscle fiber into bundles (between 10-100 or more) or fascicles.
- ______ - layer of connective tissue that surrounds a muscle fiber and is composed mostly from reticular fibers.
Structure and Function Terminology:
- _______ - visual appearance through electron microscopy of an organized array of light and dark strands within sarcomeres.
- _______ - organized array of sarcomeres connected in series (end to end) along the length of a muscle fiber
- ______ - structural units of the myofiber where structural and contractile proteins are organized in a specific sequence, causing a striated appearance under electron microscopy.
- ______ - the largest of the contractile proteins
-______ - the globular head region of myosin
-______ - a globular protein that forms a two-stranded filament (F-Actin) in vivo.
- S1 unit
Structure and Function Terminology:
- _______ - a rod shaped protein attached to actin in a regular repeating sequence - the yellow spaghetti in figure that blocks binding site of actin so that the S1 head of myosin cannot attach to it.
- _____ - a 3 component protein that is associated w/ each actin-tropomyosin complex - when ______ binds to troponin, the tropomyosin will rotate, allowing ______ so that _____ of myosin can attach to it.
1. ______ - is a tropomyosin-binding subunit which regulates the interaction of troponin complex with thin filaments (Actin)
2. ______ - inhibits ATP-ase activity of acto-myosin
3. ______ is a Ca+ binding subunit
- _______ - cell membrane around a SM fibers
- ________ - a single Aalpha motor nerve and all the muscle fibers that it innervates.
-If the nerve is a slow-twitch, all the muscle it touches or innervates will be _____ and same for fast-twitch nerves.
active binding site to be exposed;
- Motor Unit
- Slow-twitch fibers
Microstructure of SM:
refer to notes Figure 8.2 (a, b, and c)
A: Shows the SSM fiber and bundle of myofibrils inside (purple circle). Pulling out an individual myofibrils shows the ____ in part b.
B: Shows the parts of an individual myofibril:
- From z-line to z-line is the ______.
- In each sarcomere, you see a pattern of ____ - _____-______
- _____ is light color b/c at resting lengths, there is no myosin overlapping. All there is is z-line and actin.
-_______ is dark color b/c it has actin and myosin.
- The ______ is in the middle of each A-band and is light color b/c at resting lengths, the actin are not overlapping yet as the muscle will shorten or contract.
- The ______ is in the middle of the H-zone and is darker where myosin from left to right side connect.
C: Shows a zoom-in of what myosin (thick) filament and Actin (think) filament looks like.
- On the myosin (thick) (red), the feather-like structures are the _____.
- I-Band - A-Band - I-Band;
- S1 heads
Within the Sarcoplasm:
Refer to Figure 8.3 - Structure of SM fiber
- You have the same stuff as as Figure 8.2 (nuclei, SM fiber, I band, etc.)
- At the bottom is the _____ - where Ca+ is stored and released and actively pumped back into it.
- ______ - K/A Latis-like structure that surround SM.
- Going from Sr is the _____ - where you see terminal cisternae that is the ends of the transverse tubules (t-tubules).
- When the SM contracts, there is an AP going from pre-synaptic to sarcolemma. ACH is released to the NJ, binds to receptor, allowing AP to move down _____ to SR. When AP gets to SR, SR releases _____ which binds to _____ causing topomyosin to rotate and expose _____ on actin so that _____ can bind to it.
- Sarcoplamic Reticulum;
active binding site;
S1 head of myosin
- Not all nerves of body are the same. A useful classification scheme is based on ______ and ______.
- For Ex: the largest of peripheral myelinated nerves is motor nerve, classified as an _______ (SIZE)
- As it innervates SM< as distinct from a variety of sensory receptors, it is also designated as an ______ nerve, hence the abbreviation ______ (PRESENCE OF MYELIN SHEATH)
- Smallest unmyelinated (slowest conduction) nerves convey ______ and are termed - ______.
- Size (diameter) of the axon and presence of a myelin sheath around the axon;
- A nerve;
- alpha nerve;
- temperature sensations;
Instigating Movement and Neuromuscular Junction:
- Instigating Movement - How do we do this?
- Stimulation of _______ results in propagation of _____ to SM, eventually causing ______.
- _______ - the special synapse between a branch of an A-Alpha motor nerve and sarcolemma of a SM fiber.
- NOT between a presynaptic and post synaptic neuron - only A-alpha nerve and sarcolemma.
-THe neurotransmitter is _____ - released by presynaptic membrane.
-Binding of ACH of its receptor on the sarcolemma causes_______ to open, depolarize _______ and continue propagation of AP across and within the SM fibers.
- A-alpha motor nerves;
- Na+ channels;
Refer to notes for Figure 8.4
* - the connecting point between A-alpha motor nerve and sarcolemma.
- We have synaptic vessels that have _____. AS the AP reaches the _____, ti releases ACH into the _____ and the ACH will bind to receptor, allowing AP to move down ______ to SR where it will release ______ to bind to ______.
- _______ - receive and propagate an AP
-______ - contract/shorten
-_______ - rapidly return to a pre-contraction length.
- Demands of exercise require that SM must be able to:
1. Contract and generate a _______
2. Alter ________
3. Do this ________.
1. Wide range of tensions / force
2. Tension in small increments
3. Repeatedly and rapidly for durations that may vary from a few seconds to several hours.
The Sliding Filament Model:
- When SM contracts, individual sarcomeres ______ as thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments slide past one another.
Refer to notes for Figure 8.5
-1. you see where the SM is _____ - so the actin are not close together.
2. You see ______ of SM where myosin S1 head attaches to actin, pulling them close together and shortening sarcomere.
3. You see ______ where myosin brings actin as close as it can get and shortening sarcomere as short as possible.
3. Fully contracted muscle
Step-By-Step Summary fo the Sliding Filament Theory (Excitation-Contraction-Coupling-Relaxation):
-Steps 1-3 are _____ of SM.
1. A nerve signal arrives at the ______.
2. The synaptic vessels release _____ that diffuses across the _____ and binds to receptors on the _____ of the muscle fiber. This opens up _______ on the sarcolemma and results in movement of ______.
3. The inward movement of Na+ ions ________ and sends a wave through the _____.
- Steps 4-8 are ______ of SM.
4. Depolarization of the T-tubules result in the release of _______ from SR into the cytosol / _______ of SM fiber.
5. Calcium binds to _______ (on actin). Ca+ binding to troponin C results in a shift in the _______ so that ______ on actin are exposed.
6-8. These steps illustrate ________ - ______ are the S1 units pulling the actin closer together, which happens over and over again - and development of _______. Briefly, an energized myosin cross-bridge binds to the active site on actin and ________. These steps occur repeatedly as long as neural stimulation to the muscle continues.
- Steps 9-10 are _____ of SM.
9. The 1st step in muscle relaxation occurs when the motor neuron _____. Indeed , when the neural stimulation of the SM ceases, ________ is no longer released and MF is _______.
10. When the motor neuron causes to fire and muscle excitation ceases, _____ is pumped from cytosol/sarcoplasm back into the SR for ______ (back to where it came from). Without free Ca+ in the cytosol/sarcoplasm, troponin moves tropomyosin ________. This tropomyosin coverage of the active sites prevents ______ and therefore muscle relaxation occurs.
1. Synaptic kbon / Motor end feet
synaptic cleft / NJ
Na+ ion channels
Na+ into the fiber
3. depolarizes the fiber
position of tropomyosin
6-8. Cross bridge cycling
muscle force production
pulls on the actin molecule to produce movement;
9. stops to fire
back into position to cover the myosin binding sites on actin
myosin-actin cross bridge formation
Refer to Notes for Table 5.2 - The Sequence of Events During Muscle Contraction
- When "relaxed" ADP and Pi are bound to the S1 unit of myosin and the unit of myosin is in the vertical ______ position.
- What causes rigor mortis?
- After death, _____ in organism causes to occur which depletes the corpse of _____ used in making _____.
-ATP is no longer provided to operate _____ in membrane of SR - which pumps Ca+ ions into ______.
-This causes Ca+ ions to diffuse from areas of _______ (in terminal cisternae and extracellular fluid) to an area of _______ (in sarcomere) - binding to troponin and allowing the ______ to occur between myosin and actin proteins.
- Unlike normal muscle contractions, body is unable to complete cycle and release coupling between myosin and actin - creating a ________ b/c actin and myosin are bound to each other and can not detract until the muscle tissue is broken down by digestive enzymes during decomposition.
- This is how people who complete the autopsy know how long the body has been decomposed.
- SR Ca+ pumps;
- perpetual state of muscular contraction;
______ - a non-depolarizing muscle relaxant that blocks nicotinic ACH receptor, 1 of the 2 types of ACH receptors.
- The main toxin of Curare is - ________ - this toxin occupies the same position on receptor as ACH with an equal or greater affinity (really likes it). This elicits no response, making it a ______.
- So when ACH is released from presynaptic neuron and tries to bind to receptors on sarcolemma, Curare ______.
- Death by Curare is caused by ______ - aka Suffocation - b/c SM become relaxed and then paralyzed (so diaphragm can't move to breathe)
- Poisoning animals have _____ on humans if ingested.
- Monkey being shot by bamboo with this - it becomes paralyzed.
- no harmful effects
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