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The nervous system employs exclusively electrical means to send messages, whereas the endocrine system communicates by means of chemical messengers.


Most neurons have multiple dendrites


Neurons move material away from the soma by retrograde transport.


Unipolar neurons have only a single process leading away from the soma.


Oligodendrocytes serve the same purpose in the CNS that satellite cells do in the PNS


Ependymal cells line the inner cavities of the CNS.


In the brain, neurons are more abundant than neuroglia.


Action potential never occurs in dendrites.


When a neuron is stimulated, Na+ gates open and allow Na+ to exit the cell.


In a myelinated fiber only the initial segment in the trigger zone have voltage-regulated channels.


Norepinephrine is a monoamine.


Acetylcholine triggers the synthesis of the second messenger cAMP only in neurons of the PNS.


Nitric oxide (NO) acts as a neuromodulator by altering synaptic function.


Any two EPSPs will override one IPSP.


Memories are formed by neural pathways of modified synapses.

Visceral motor

____ division carries signals to the smooth muscle in the large intestine.


The ___ division tends to prepare the body for action


___ are examples of effectors of the nervous system.

visceral motor division.

The autonomic nervous system is also called the


Nerves are ___ of the nervous system.

afferent; efferent

Some ___ neurons are specialized to detect stimuli, whereas ____ neurons send signals to the effectors of the nervous system.


About 90% of the neurons in the nervous system are ___ neurons.


___ neurons are the most common type of neurons.

an axon.

Nerve fiber refers to


Most metabolic and regulatory functions in a neuron happen at the

Schwann cells

This image shows a representative neuron. What does "5" represent?


This image shows a representative neuron. What does "1" represent?


____ are the primary site for receiving signals from other neurons.


___ form myelin in the spinal cord.


Most of the myelin sheath is composed of


The myelin sheath is formed by

large myelinated fiber

Conduction speed of a nerve fiber would be the fastest in a

the soma and at least some neurilemma intact.

In order for a peripheral nerve fiber to regenerate it must have


___ has the greatest influence on the resting membrane potential


Most local potentials happen at the

depolarization of the plasma membrane.

Opening of sodium gates typically leads to

inflow of chloride

Which of the following will cause the plasma membrane to hyperpolarize when at its RMP?


Local potentials are _____, meaning they vary in magnitude according to the strength of the stimulus.

hyperpolarizes the plasma membrane.

An inhibitory local potential

sodium gates are fully open

While the membrane is depolarizing its

a rising local potential

This image shows an action potential. What does "1" represent?

hyperpolarization of the membrane

This image shows an action potential. What does "6" represent?

nondecremental; decremental

Local potentials are ___, whereas action potential are ___.

potassium ions are leaving the cell.

During hyperpolarization (or afterpotential


When the voltage of a plasma membrane shifts from +35mV towards 0 mV, we say the cell is

no stimulus of any strength will trigger a new action potential.

During the absolute refractory period

a nerve signal.

A traveling wave of excitation is what we know as

There are no internodes in unmyelinated fibers.

What would be the best explanation for why myelinated fibers conduct signals faster than unmyelinated fibers?

they are released into the bloodstream before reaching the postsynaptic cell.

All of the following are typical characteristics of neurotransmitters except


A cholinergic synapse employs ___ as its neurotransmitter.

-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

___ binds to ligand-regulated gates, and is the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.

synaptic vesicles release ACh

Which of these happens first in an cholinergic synaptic transmission?

G protein dissociates from the NE receptor

Which of these happens first in an adrenergic synaptic transmission?

that breaks down monoamines.

Some antidepressant drugs act by inhibiting monoamine oxidase (MAO), which is an enzyme

synaptic vesicles secrete neurotransmitter by exocytosis

All of these contribute to the cessation of the signal in a synaptic transmission except


___ excites skeletal muscle and inhibits cardiac muscle.

hyperpolarization of the cell membrane.

Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) are associated with

chloride; IPSP

Opening of __ gates produces an ___.

a voltage change from -70 mV to -69.5 mV

Which of these is an example of an EPSP in a typical neuron?

spatial summation

A neuron can receive thousands of EPSPs from different neurons, and responds by triggering or not triggering an action potential. This addition and response to the net effect of postsynaptic potentials is called


Presynaptic inhibition is the opposite of

a reverberating circuit

The best type of neural pool for producing a prolonged output is


Even though all action potentials are the same, the brain can differentiate a variety of stimuli by source and intensity. The mechanism by which the nervous system converts these action potentials into meaningful information is called neural


Parkinson disease is a progressive loss of motor function due to the degeneration of specific neurons. These neurons secrete an inhibitory neurotransmitter that prevents excessive activity in motor centers of the brain. This neurotransmitter is

synaptic facilitation; short-term memory

Accumulation of Ca2+ in the synaptic knob is called ___, and probably plays an important role in ___.

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