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60 terms

Chapter 16: The Endocrine System

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Produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty
Ovaries
Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain
Pituitary Gland
Produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics
Testies
Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids
Adrenal Glands
Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ
Hypothalamus
Growth hormone- releasing hormone (GHRH)
Bones and Muscles (far left)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Testes or Ovaries (middle)
Prolactin- releasing hormone (PRH)
Mammary Glands (2nd from left)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Adrenal Cortex (far right)
Thyrotropin- releasing hormone (TRH)
Thyroid (2nd from right)
The size and shape of a pea; produces hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands
hypophysis
the gland that controls the fight or flight reaction
adrenal medulla
produces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body
pancreas
produces a hormone that controls blood levels of clacium and potassium by their removal from bone tissue
parathyroid
produces the bodys major metabolic hormones
thyroid
the antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood clacium level are calcitonin parathyroid hormone
true
the hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin
false
both "turn on" factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and "turn off" factors (feedback inhibition and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system
true
ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones
true
LH is also reffered to as a gonadotropin
true
with age chronic stress increases blood levels of cortisol and appears to contribute to memory deterioration
true
oxytocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contractions
true
type 2 diabetics may reflect declining receptor sensitivity to insulin rather than decreased insulin production
true
the prime metabolic effect of cortisol is gluconeogenesis
true
the beta cells are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin
true
most type 2 diabetics do not produce insulin
false
atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of sodium
true
although glucagon is a small polypeptide it is nevertheless very potent in its regulatory effects
true
the thyroid gland is a large gland that controls metabolic functions throughout the life of an individual
true
many hormones synthesized in the gastrointestinal tract are chemically identical to brain neurotransmitters
true
all of the following hormones are secreted by the adenohypophysis: ACTH, FSH, and LH.
true
Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxine
true
the endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is parathyroid
false
Growth hormone always exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine glands to produce hormones
false
glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that usually enhance the immune responses when an individual is suffering from severe stress
false
direct gene activitation involves a second messenger system
false
all edenohypophyseal hormones except GH affect their target cells via a cyclic AMP second messenger
true
gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of
cortisol
normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the
thymus gland
nearly all of the protein or amino acid based hormones exert their effects through intracellular
second messengers
which of the following is not a category of the endocrine gland stimulus
enzyme
chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called
hormones
the hypothalamic hypophyseal tract
is partly contained within the infundibulum
Which of the following is a sign of diabetes mellitus
polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia (all of these)
Oxytocin__
release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
ADH____
is inhibited by alcohol
thyroid hormone exerts its influence by
entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
gonadocorticoids____
Production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty
Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as
down-regulation
which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus
direct control of the nervous system
the ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on
the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
the neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the putuitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because
it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
steroid hormones exert their action by
entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
the second messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by
binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses; this is because
during protein kinase activation enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes
cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. in order for cells to respond it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. this is possible because
G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
thyroid hormone ( a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to
steroid hormones because both diffuse easily into target cells
when it becomes necessary to enlist the fight or flight response a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is
epinephrine
one of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. which of the following describes this mechanism
humoral stimulation
the major targets of growth hormone are
bones and skeletal muscles