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80 terms

Body Organization and Terminology

FLASHCARD DECK FOR LECTURE EXAM ONE
STUDY
PLAY
Anatomy
The study of body structure/morphology is known as _____
Physiology
The study of the functions of the body is called _____
Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy, Developmental Anatomy, and Comparative Anatomy
List the four types of anatomy study
False
True or False: Gross anatomy is the study of the interior of the body.
Gross Anatomy
aka macroscopic anatomy, can be examined with the naked eye.
Systemic Anatomy, Regional Anatomy and Surface
List the three areas of study in Gross Anatomy
B. systemic anatomy
The study of all the parts that make up the systems in a body is referred to as: a. microscopic anatomy, b. systemic anatomy, c. cytology
True
True or False: Regional anatomy is the study of specific areas of the body.
Surface
aka topographic, this type of anatomy study involves palpation.
Palpation
The technique used to study structures beneath the skin is known as _____
Cytology
The study of cells
Histology
The study of tissues
Developmental Anatomy
the study of the structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span, from conception to death is known as _____
Embryology
This is a specific branch of developmental Anatomy that is concerned with the period through conception to birth (usually including the first year of life)
True
True or False: Embryology is concerned with both the aging and repair of cells
False
True or False: Comparative anatomy compares the anatomy of one human to another.
Pathological / Pharmacological
_____is the study of disease processes while _____ is the study of drug actions in the body.
Dissection, Microscopy, Radiography, Tomography, Ultrasound, Scintigraphy, and MRI
List 7 methods of investigation used in physiology.
Radiography uses 2D images while Tomography combines x-rays to create a 3D image.
What is the difference between radiography and tomography?
b. Scintigraphy
Which of the following methods of investigation uses a radioactive isotope directly injected into a specific area? A. CAT Scan, B. Scintigraphy, C. MRI
a. MRI
Which method of investigation is uses magnets and assists in viewing areas of the body where changes in density are subtle? A. MRI, B. Scintigraphy, C. Tomography
Ultrasound
This method of investigation uses sound waves to create an image.
Cell
The basic unit of structure and function in a living organism is known as a _____
Atom->Molecule->Organelle->Cell->Tissue->Organ->Organ System->Organism
From smallest to largest, list the levels of organization in a body.
Organelle
Little organs within the cell are known as _____
Epithelial, nervous, muscular, connective
List the four types of tissues.
Tissue
An aggregation of similar cells joined together to perform a specific function is called _____
Organ
A structure consisting of two or more tissues that performs a specific function is known as _____
System
A group of organs that function together is called _____
Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Respiratory, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Urinary, Digestive and Reproductive
List the 11 systems within the body.
Homeostasis
The maintenance of a stable, constant internal environment
Negative Feedback
The homeostatic mechanism by which the body returns to its original state is called _____
Positive Feedback
The homeostatic mechanism by which the body advances to a new state is called _____
True
True or False: Negative Feedback is the most common of the two homeostatic mechanisms.
True
True or False: Cancer is an example of positive feedback.
Standing erect, facing forward, palms and toes pointed forward
Describe anatomical position.
Sagittal Plane
Separates the body into the right and left halves
Mid-Sagittal Plane
Separates the body into right and left halves along the midline.
Coronal (aka Frontal
Separates the body into front and back halves.
Transverse (aka horizontal)
Separates the body into top and bottom sections.
Cross-Section
A cut perpendicular to the long axis of a structure is called a(n) _____
Longitudinal Section
A cut parallel to the long axis of a structure is called a(n)_____
Oblique Section
A cut at an oblique angle to the long axis of a structure is called a(n)_____
Sagittal Plane, Coronal, Transverse and Cross-Section
List the 4 Planes of Reference.
Superior/Inferior, Ventral/Dorsal, Medial/Lateral/Median, Proximal/Distal, Superficial/Deep
List the 5 directional reference pairs.
Cranial/Caudal or Cephalad/Caudad
Superior/Inferior is also known as _____
Anterior/Posterior
Dorsal/Ventral is also known as ______
Profundus
Deep is also known as _____
Superior/Inferior
Directional reference meaning above, towards the head/below, towards the feet.
Ventral/Dorsal
Directional reference meaning toward the front surface of the body/toward the back surface of the body.
Medial/Lateral/Median
Directional reference meaning towards the midline of the body/away from the midline of the body/at the midline of the body
Proximal/Distal
Directional reference meaning closer to the point of attachment/further from the point of attachment.
Superficial/Deep
Directional reference meaning closer to the surface, away from the core/closer to the core, away from the surface.
Ventral cavity, Dorsal cavity and Facial cavity
List the 3 major cavities of the body.
The Ventral Cavity contains the thoracic cavity within which are housed the pleural cavities (associated with the lungs) and the mediastinum which contains the pericardial cavity (associated with the heart). Below the thoracic cavity and separated by the diaphragm is the abdominopelvic cavity. Subdivided into two sections the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity.
Describe the Ventral Cavity
The Dorsal cavity contains the cranial cavity (associated with the brain) and the vertebral cavity (associated with the spinal cord)
Describe the Dorsal Cavity
The facial cavity contains the oral or buccal cavity, the nasal cavity, the orbital cavity (eye sockets), and the middle ear (or tympanic or otic) cavity.
Describe the facial cavities.
Mucous and Serous
What are the two types of body membranes?
Mucous membrane
The membrane generally found lining the cavities of the body which contain an entrance or exit.
Serous Membrane
The membrane generally found lining cavities of the body that are entirely contained.
False
True or False: the oral cavity is lined by a serous membrane.
True
True or False: the pleural cavity is lined by a serous membrane.
Pleural, Pericardium and Peritoneum
What 3 cavities are lined by serous membranes?
Right Hypochondriac, Epigastric, Left Hypochondriac, Right Lumbar, Umbilical, Left Lumbar, Right Iliac, Hypogastric, Left Iliac
List from right to left, top to bottom the nine regions of the body.
A horizontal line is drawn at the bottom of the ribs and another at the top of the pelvis, two vertical lines are drawn through the mammary region
Describe how the nine region method is sectioned off on the body.
The Patient's
From whose perspective do you always label right and left?
Inguinal
Where the thigh connects to the trunk is called the _____
Pubic
The genital region is also known as the _____
Perineal
The region around the anus.
Gluteal
The ass is known as the _____
Sacral
The triangular area at the end of the vertebral column is called the _____
Head, Neck, Trunk, Upper Extremities, Lower Extremities
List the 5 regions of the body
Cranial and Facial
2 areas contained within the region of the head are the
Orbital, nasal, oral, buccal, mental, auricular
6 areas contained within the facial region
The trunk is sectioned into two parts, the thorax and the abdominopelvic region. The thorax contains the mammary, sternal, axillary, costal and vertebral, the abdominopelvic region contains the areas within the 9 region method (r and l hypochondriac, Epigastric, r and l lumbar, umbilical, r and l iliac and hypogastric)
Describe the parts of the trunk.
Shoulder/acromial, omos or deltoid, arm/brachium, elbow/cubital region, forearm/antebrachium, wrist/carpus, hand/manus (including the palm and dorsum)
List the common and anatomical terms for the upper extremities.
Thigh/Femoral region, Knee/patellar, back of the knee/popliteal, leg/cura (includes shin and calf), ankle/tarsus, foot/pes (includes dorsum and sole-plantar surface.
List the common and anatomical terms for the lower extremities
Costal
The ribs are also known as the _______
Axillary
The armpits are also known as the ______
Mental
The chin is also known as the _____