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PR actions devised and used to influence relationships with publics; channel with a message


3rd Phase of PR

Tactic Types

messages and channels


tactics designed to deliver a message and influence a relationship

Goals of Tactics

clearly address receiver's values and interests

Types of Channels

special events, controlled media, uncontrolled media

Special Events

actions speak louder than words, designed for participants and observers, reach many publics


special events designed just to attract attention of news media

Controlled Media

employee newsletters, speeches, podcasts, brochures, web sites; have control of words and images as well as how message is sent and repeated; often used by special events

Uncontrolled Media

news media, individuals act as gatekeepers, choose what to release, valuable for sending message to target public; can initiate stories against your will


can select exact words and images but can lack credibility; can be expensive


credibility and costs not as problematic; can provide 3rd party endorsement; costs less; but you can't control

Tactics Qualities

part of written, approved PR plan tied to value based mission; target 1 public at the time; research target public's values, interests, and channels; send clear message that targets public and achieve organizations objectives; are specific; evaluated


important public; can communicate via face-to-face meetings, newsletters, magazines, videos, boards, speeches, intranets, email, instant messaging, and special events

News Media

intervening public; can communicate via news releases, media kits, media advisories, pitches, video news releases, actualities, news conferences, PSAs, guest editorials, letters to the editor, interviews, trade magazines

News Release

objective, straight-forward, unbiased news story; 90% get thrown away; need to have local interest, can't be too promotional; lack objectivity

Media Kits

packages a news release with other supporting documents such as fact sheets or backgrounders; have photo opp sheets; often a CD or DVD


written as stories for media kits

Media Advisory

use when stories take shape too quickly for news release; list important facts


persuasive message to a journalist to describe a human-interest story; target 1 medium; sometimes exclusive


video news release; distributed to TV stations; ready to broadcast; sometimes have unedited footage


sound bites for radio stations

News Conferences

scheduled meeting between organization representative and news media; only for highly newsworthy story, need to meet with reporters as a group, journalists will be glad to have come; ultimate uncontrolled media


created by nonprofit organizations


SMTs are satellite media tours; done off-location


technically organization's owners; includes stockholders and financial news media; use websites, newsletters, annual meetings, and annual reports

Community Groups

includes churches, schools, chambers of commerce; use volunteering, donations/scholarships, cause marketing, speeches, tours, and face-to-face meetings

Cause Marketing

addresses multiple publics, forms of social responsibility, creates good will


hugely important; use lobbyists, grassroots lobbying, political action committees, soft money, and disclosure documents


political action committees; donate money to candidates and parties; segregated funds or non-connected committees


where PR overlaps with marketing; use product-oriented news releases, special events, open houses, responses to customer contacts, and phone messaging


may be the most important public


use extranet, magazines, and trade magazines

Accomplishing Tactics

delegation, deadlines, quality control, communication within the team, communication with clients and supervisors, constant evaluation

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