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actions speak louder than words, designed for participants and observers, reach many publics
employee newsletters, speeches, podcasts, brochures, web sites; have control of words and images as well as how message is sent and repeated; often used by special events
news media, individuals act as gatekeepers, choose what to release, valuable for sending message to target public; can initiate stories against your will
credibility and costs not as problematic; can provide 3rd party endorsement; costs less; but you can't control
part of written, approved PR plan tied to value based mission; target 1 public at the time; research target public's values, interests, and channels; send clear message that targets public and achieve organizations objectives; are specific; evaluated
important public; can communicate via face-to-face meetings, newsletters, magazines, videos, boards, speeches, intranets, email, instant messaging, and special events
intervening public; can communicate via news releases, media kits, media advisories, pitches, video news releases, actualities, news conferences, PSAs, guest editorials, letters to the editor, interviews, trade magazines
objective, straight-forward, unbiased news story; 90% get thrown away; need to have local interest, can't be too promotional; lack objectivity
packages a news release with other supporting documents such as fact sheets or backgrounders; have photo opp sheets; often a CD or DVD
persuasive message to a journalist to describe a human-interest story; target 1 medium; sometimes exclusive
video news release; distributed to TV stations; ready to broadcast; sometimes have unedited footage
scheduled meeting between organization representative and news media; only for highly newsworthy story, need to meet with reporters as a group, journalists will be glad to have come; ultimate uncontrolled media
technically organization's owners; includes stockholders and financial news media; use websites, newsletters, annual meetings, and annual reports
includes churches, schools, chambers of commerce; use volunteering, donations/scholarships, cause marketing, speeches, tours, and face-to-face meetings
hugely important; use lobbyists, grassroots lobbying, political action committees, soft money, and disclosure documents
political action committees; donate money to candidates and parties; segregated funds or non-connected committees
where PR overlaps with marketing; use product-oriented news releases, special events, open houses, responses to customer contacts, and phone messaging
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