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Terms in this set (153)
The main components of the human cardiovascular system are
the heart, blood and blood vessels
The cardiovascular systems of humans are
closed, meaning that the blood never leaves the network of blood vessels
carry blood away from the heart (a for away)
Arteries functions and characteristics:
thick walled; oxygenated; conduct blood at high pressures; have a pulse; no valves to prevent backflow
thin walled; deoxygenated; conduct blood at low pressures; no pulse; have valves to prevent backflow
substances that become ions in solution and acquire the capacity to conduct electricity
Electrolytes are present in the human body
and the balance of the electrolytes in our bodies is essential for normal function of our cells and our organs.
Common electrolytes that are measured by doctors with blood testing include
sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate.
Disruptions in the normal bicarbonate level
measures CO2 or carbon dioxide in blood , The bicarbonate ion acts as a buffer to maintain the normal levels of acidity (pH) in blood and other fluids in the body. may be due to diseases that interfere with respiratory function, kidney diseases, metabolic conditions, or other causes.
The upper gastrointestinal tract consists of the
the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
The lower gastrointestinal tract includes
small intestine and all of the large intestine, and anus
absorption of nutrients and minerals found in food, where much of the digestion and absorption of food takes place.
first section of the small intestine, responsible for the breakdown of food in the small intestine, using enzymes.
beginning of the large intestine, a pouch, connecting the ileum with the ascending colon of the large intestine.
The main function of colon is to absorb water, but it also contains bacteria that produce beneficial vitamins like Vitamin K.
4 sections of the colon
ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid flexure
The cells of the adaptive immune system are special types of leukocytes, called lymphocytes. B cells and T cells are the major types of lymphocytes.
B cells are involved in the humoral immune responses
is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies. Secreted antibodies bind to antigens on the surfaces of invading microbes (such as viruses or bacteria), which flags them for destruction.
T cells are involved in cell-mediated immune response.
involves the activation of macrophages, natural killer cells (NK)
first responses of the immune system to infection.
Inflammation, signs, redness, swelling, heat, and pain which are caused by increased blood flow into a tissue.
'eating cell'. These are immune cells that engulf, i.e. phagocytose, pathogens or particles
All white blood cells (WBC), able to move freely and interact with and capture cellular debris, foreign particles, or invading microorganisms.
The innate leukocytes (WBC) include:
Natural killer cells, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils; and the phagocytic cells including macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells, and function within the immune system by identifying and eliminating pathogens that might cause infection
Two other important functions of the renal system, which are also performed by the kidneys,
is regulating and maintaining the balance of electrolytes and the pH of the fluid that has been processed.
Fluid passing through the kidneys is monitored and the proper concentrations of ions such as
hydrogen, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, sulfate, and phosphate
The production of ammonia also helps to keep the processed fluid at a pH in kidneys of between
7.37 and 7.43. This range is critical for the proper function of the body.
The conversion of incoming nutrients to energy for the body's various processes generates waste.
Much of this waste is soluble, that is, it can dissolve in water (and so in blood, which is largely comprised of water). This waste must be removed from the water and expelled from the body.
The ability of the renal system to function depends upon the presence of two hormones.
antidiuretic hormone, or ADH and aldosterone.
The performance of the renal system can also be adversely affected by
diabetes mellitus. The excess glucose in the blood may not be removed by the kidneys, leading to the appearance of glucose in the urine.
only part of the lung that exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood.
involuntary muscle present in the arteries, gastrointestinal tract, and elsewhere
voluntary muscles that cause body movement
tissue that makes up the heart
takes glucose, a sugar molecule with 6 carbon atoms and breaks it down to 2 pyruvate molecules, each with 3 carbon atoms to make NADH then make ATP through the electron transport chain.
provide cells with the ability to carry out functions: chemical messangers, transport substances movement, immune defense,
act as catalysts for all biochemical reactions, increase reaction rates by lowering activation energy
Which of the following associations of brain structure and function is false?
Cerebral cortex: Higher intellectual function
Medulla: Basic emotional Drive
Medulla: Basic emotional drives (false)
The absorption of oxygen from the atmosphere into the blood takes place in the:
Enzymes in human cells:
Are proteins, typically work best at pH 7.2
Which part of cellular respiration directly produces a pH gradient during the oxidative metabolism of glucose?
Electron transport chain
The air passages involved in respiration consist of:
the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.
Sympathetic nervous system
associated with fight or flight response; increases heart rate; increases breathing rate; lowers digestive rate; causes pupil dilation
Parasympahtetic nervous system
associated with rest-and-digest response; lowers heart rate; no affect on breathing rate; increases digestive rate; doesn't cause pupil dilation
photoreceptors that respond to high-intensity illumination and color
respond to low-intensity illumination (important in night vision), but do not detect color well
Most human digestion takes place in
Insulin is created in the body's
Tough elastic tissues found in the joints that connect bones are called
Rods and cones are light-sensitive cells inside the eyes:
Muscles controlled by conscious thought
Most of the nutrients in food are absorbed in the body's
In humans, red blood cells:
have no nucleus (red blood cells are made in the bone marrow, they lose their nuclei to make room for hemoglobin, so they cannot reproduce or repair themselves)
Saliva in the mouth begins the process of breaking down:
In an emergency, a person with type AB antigen in his red blood cells may receive a transfusion of:
Type O, A or B (Type AB is a Universal acceptor)
Before entering the Krebs cycle, pyruvate is converted to
A single "turn" of the Krebs cycle will yield
1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2.
The initial reaction of the Krebs cycle involves the addition of a
2-carbon molecule to a 4-carbon molecule.
The Krebs cycle occurs in the
Aerobic respiration is divided into two processes
the Krebs cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain, which produces ATP
2 pyruvate molecules, which are converted into acetyl CoA,
located in the upper right-hand portion of the abdominal cavity, beneath the diaphragm and on top of the stomach, right kidney, and intestines
hormones produced by the thyroid gland primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism
act on nearly every cell in the body. increase the basal metabolic rate, affect protein synthesis, help regulate long bone growth; essential to proper development ; regulate protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism
Higher intellectual function
The gap between two nerve cells is called a
A layer of light-sensitive cells called what make up one of the layers of the retina?
cones and rods
secondary defense against pathogens
connects larynx to bronchi
What glad listed below is not paired up with a hormone it produces?
posterior pituitary not matched correctly, it produces oxytocin and vasopressin.
Cortisol controls rate of metabolism for fasts, proteins and carbohydrates.
Sensory neurons and motors neurons make up the
peripheral nervous system
bone to muscle
The cochlea and pinna are parts of the
The pancreas is what to the esophagus
proximal (meaning closer to the body's trunk
Pepsin is a substance used by the body to
break down proteins
In the human immune system, responsible for recognizing non self cells
Alveoli are tiny air sacs that allow for gas exchange. They are part of the
medulla oblongata, cerebrum, cerebellum
parts of the human brain
The axial skeletal system does NOT include:
On a tongue, taste buds pick up tastes that are sweet, sour, salty and
Peripheral Nervous system
made up of sensory neurons and motor neurons
through ingestion and digestion, organisms make nutrients available to cells through absorption. These nutrients are transported through the body to be used.
the heartbeat a doctor hears through a stethoscope is the sound of the chambers of the heart contracting in a regular pattern called the cardiac cycle
heart is composed of these specialized muscle tissue, they are connected together in an electrical network that transmits nervous impulses throughout the muscle to stimulate contraction
aka pacemaker region, during each cardiac cycle, heart gives the signal to contract
Sympathetic nervous system and epinephrine
increase heart rate
permit the exchange of materials between the blood and the body's cells, thin-walled vessels that are very small in diameter; red blood cells must pass through them in single file.
the foundation for the lymphatic system that carries extracellular fluid at a very low pressure, without cells.
responsible for filtering lymph to rid it of foreign particles, maintaining the proper glance of fluids in tissues of the body, and transporting chylomicrons as part of fat metabolism.
Plasma is composed of:
water, salts, proteins, glucose, hormones, lipids
designed to move air between the exterior atmosphere and an interior space that is in close contact with the capillaries.
breathing rate is controlled by, part of the brain that monitors carbon dioxide content in the blood
The air passages involved in respiration include:
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and the alveoli
involved in diverting ingested material into the esophagus and away from the lungs to prevent choking
contains a membrane that vibrates in a controlled manner with the passage of air to create the voice
carries air through the vulnerable throat protected by flexible but strong rings of cartilage.
tiny air sacs that are the site of gas exchange in the lungs
Nervous system and endocrine system
two communication systems that coordinate the activities of different tissues and organs
chemical messengers produced in one tissue and carried by the blood to act on other parts of the body.
network of glands and tissues that secrete hormones
such as the pancreas or adrenal cortex can be targets of the autonomic nervous system
principle that regulates the production and secretion of hormones in a chain
section of the posterior forebrain, located above the pituitary glad. Connects nervous system with the endocrine system.
small gland with two lobes lying at the base of the brain: anterior and posterior
Anterior pituitary gland (in brain) secretes many hormones:
growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), Prolactin, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone
Posterior pituitary gland (in brain)
direct extension of nervous tissue from hypothalamus. Nerve signals cause hormone release. Secretes two hormones: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin and oxytocin.
the thyroid hormone, accelerates oxidative metabolism though out the body
small pea-like organs that regulate calcium and phosphate balance in blood, bones, and other tissues
exocrine secretes hormones into small intestine; endocrine secretes hormones into bloodstream; Insulin stimulates muscles to remove glucose from the blood when glucose levels are high (like after a meal); Islets of Langerhans secrete glucagon that respond to low levels of blood glucose
consist of the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla, on top of the kidneys
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
In response to stress, ACTH secretes steroid hormones called cortiocosteriods
increases the conversion of glycogen to glucose in liver and muscle tissue, causing a rise in blood glucose levels and an increase in the basal metabolic rate.
enables organs to receive and respond to stimuli from external and internal environments
specialized cells designed to transmit information in the form of electrochemical signals called action potentials.
When a neuron reaches a target cell, the axon ends in a synaptic terminal, with a gap called the
synapse between the neuron and the target cell.
In the nervous system, membrane potential in converted to chemical signal, or neurotransmitter, that is released across a small gap between the neuron and target cell. The gap is celled a
Central nervous system (processes and stores information)
made up of brain enclosed within the cranium and a spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous system
carry signals to effector organs such as muscles and glands to take actions in response to nervous impulses
Somatic Motor Nervous System
skeletal movement, voluntary movement, conscious control
Autonomic Nervous System
regulates involuntary functions of the body, heart and blood vessels, reparation, muscles of eye, etc.
Sympathetic Nervous System
activates body during emergency situations (fight or flight response)
Parasympathetic Nervous System
deactivates or shows down activities of muscles and glands (rest-and-digest response); slowing down of heart rates, pupillary constriction
Cerebral cortex (brain)
voluntary motor activity
Offactory lobe (brain)
center for reception and integration of olfactory input
nervous impluses and sensory information
hunger, thirst, pain, temperature, regulation
muscle activity coordinated
relay center for cerebral cortical fibers
Medulla oblongata (brain)
controls vital functions like breathing, heart rate, and detection of carbon dioxide
part of the CNS. routs for axons to travel out of brain, center for reflex actions like knee-jerk reflex
at the front of the eye, bends and focuses light rays
light rays travel through this opening
the diameter of the pupil is controlled by this pigmented, muscular eye part
light continues through this in the eye, which is behind the pupil
contains photoreceptors that transfuse light into action potentials
Cone and Rods
Two types of specialized photoreceptor cells in the eye that respond to light:
respond to high-intensity illumination and are sensitive to color
detect low-intensity illumination and are important for night vision
conduct visual information to the brain
connects stomach to the mouth
not a function of kidneys
top number on a blood pressure reading
Hardening of the arteries is known as
Which of the following statements about prostaglandins is NOT true?
Prostaglandins promote inflammation
Prostaglandins can only constrict blood vessels.
Prostaglandins are made in the renal medulla
Prostaglandins can lead to pain and fever
Prostaglandins can only constrict blood vessels (FALSE)
The enzyme maltase does the following:
Breaks down maltose to glucose
High levels of billirubin in the blood stream can result in:
walls of arteries and veins, bladder and utereus, contract in response to action potentials
bones of the appendages and pectoral and pelvic girdles
midline basic framework of the body, the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
the site where the formation of blood cells takes place, a hollow cavity within each long bone is filled with this
makes of most of the skeleton in mature higher vertebrates, including humans; made up of calcium, phosphates salts and collagen
firm, flexible, principle component of embryonic skeletons, takes longer to heal than bone
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