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The camera-type eyes of octopuses are very complicated and have many of the same features as the camera-type eyes of vertebrates. Yet, the eyes of invertebrates and vertebrates are not homologous. This situation is an example of

b. homoplasy.

shared primitive characters

C. homologous

bat wing and butterfly wing

B. analogous

whale pectoral flipper and horse foreleg

C. homologous

The four-chambered hearts of birds and the four-chambered hearts of mammals evolved independently of each other. If one were unaware of this independence, then one might logically conclude that

d. the common ancestor of birds and mammals had a four-chambered heart.

Some claim that the birds should continue to be placed in a class (Aves) separate from the Reptilia, despite evidence from molecular systematics indicating a close relationship between birds and crocodiles. Their claim is based on the extent of the adaptations that birds have undergone for flight. The logic of their claim is most similar to that found in which statement?

b. Humans should be placed in their own order because no other member of the order Primates features so many modifications for bipedalism.

Species that are not closely related and that do not share many anatomical similarities can still be placed together on the same phylogenetic tree by comparing their

e. homologous genes that are highly conserved.

Which statement represents the best explanation for the observation that the nuclear DNA of wolves and domestic dogs has a very high degree of homology?

d. Dogs and wolves shared a common ancestor very recently.

What is true of gene duplication?


Which combination of the following species characteristics would cause the greatest likelihood of fossilization in sedimentary rock?

e. I, II, III, and V

The ostrich and the emu look very similar and live in similar habitats, however they are not very closely related. This is an example of

b. convergent evolution.

Which of the following pairs are homologous?

a. bat wing and human hand

Some molecular data place the giant panda in the bear family (Ursidae) but place the lesser panda in the raccoon family (Procyonidae). The morphological similarities of these two species must therefore be due to

d. convergent evolution.

The correct sequence from the most to the least comprehensive of the taxonomic levels listed here is

b. kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.

If organisms A, B, and C belong to the same class but to different orders and if organisms D, E, and F belong to the same order but to different families, which of the following pairs of organisms would be expected to show the greatest degree of structural homology?

e. D and F

On the basis of their morphologies, how might Linnaeus have classified the Hawaiian silverswords?

c. He would have placed them in more species than modern botanists do.

Darwin analogized the effects of evolution as the above-ground portion of a many-branched tree, with extant species being the tips of the twigs. The common ancestor of two species is most analogous to which anatomical tree part?

b. a node where two twigs diverge

first to think of the hierarchical classification system as a genealogy

A. Carolus Linnaeus

used a classification scheme that did not sort homology from analogy

A. Carolus Linnaeus

an originator of neutral theory

C. Matoo Kimura

unaware of the existence of genetic mutations

B. Charles Darwin

the originator of the binomial designation for species

A. Carolus Linnaeus

based rate of evolutionary change on the assertion that most genetic mutations in populations are neither harmful nor helpful and therefore are not influenced by natural selection

B. Charles Darwin

Generally, within a lineage, the largest number of shared derived characters should be found among two organisms that are members of the same

d. family.

A common ancestor for both species C and E could be at position number

d. 4.

The two extant species that are most closely related to each other are

c. C and D.

Which species are extinct?

a. A and E

Which extinct species should be the best candidate to serve as the outgroup for the clade whose common ancestor occurs at position 2?

a. A

Ultimately, which of these is the basis for both the principle of maximum parsimony and the principle that shared complexity indicates homology rather than analogy?

c. the laws of probability

If the complex protein assemblage of the prokaryotic flagellum arose by the same general processes as those of the complex eyes of advanced molluscs (such as squids), then

b. ancestral versions of this protein assemblage were either less functional, or had different functions, than modern prokaryotic flagella.

If the prokaryotic flagellum developed from assemblages of proteins that originally were not involved with cell motility but with some other function instead, then the modern prokaryotic flagellum is an example of a(n)

c. exaptation.

If this hypothesis is correct, insect wings could best be described as

c. exaptations.

If one organ is an exaptation of another organ, then what must be true of these two organs?

b. They are homologous organs.

Which of the following examples would be most likely to result in macroevolution?

a. a change in a regulatory gene, which has a major and adaptive impact on morphology

An organism has a relatively large number of Hox genes in its genome. Which of the following is not true of this organism?

b. It must have multiple paired appendages along the length of its body.

Bagworm moth caterpillars feed on evergreens and carry a silken case or bag around with them in which they eventually pupate. Adult female bagworm moths are larval in appearance; they lack the wings and other structures of the adult male and instead retain the appearance of a caterpillar even though they are sexually mature and can lay eggs within the bag. This is a good example of

b. paedomorphosis.

hich of the following terms is (are) appropriately applied to this situation?

e. A, B, and C

A hypothetical mutation in a squirrel population produces organisms with eight legs rather than four. Further, these mutant squirrels survive, successfully invade new habitats, and eventually give rise to a new species. The initial event giving rise to extra legs would be a good example of

d. changes in homeotic genes.

Many species of snakes lay eggs, but in the forests of northern Minnesota where growing seasons are short, only live-bearing snake species are present. This trend toward species that perform live birth is an example of

c. species selection.

In the 5-6 million years that the hominid lineage has been diverging from its common ancestor with the great apes, dozens of hominid species have arisen, often with several species coexisting in time and space. As recently as 30,000 years ago, Homo sapiens coexisted with Homo neanderthalensis. Both species had large brains and advanced intellects. That these traits were common to both species is most easily explained by which of the following?

a. species selection

The existence of evolutionary trends, such as increasing body sizes among horse species, is evidence that

d. in particular environments, similar adaptations can be beneficial in more than one species.

In certain motile prokaryotes, dozens of different proteins comprise the motor that powers the prokaryotic flagellum. The motor has a complicated structure, and its various proteins interact to carry out its function. Based on Darwin's explanation for the existence of human eyes, how would he probably have explained the existence of such motors?

e. He would have proposed that less complicated, but still functional, versions (though maybe with a different function) had existed in ancestral prokaryotes.

Which of the following is a way that allopolyploidy can most directly cause speciation?

b. It can overcome hybrid sterility.

A new plant species formed from the hybridization between a plant with a diploid number of 16 and a plant with a diploid number of 12 would probably have a gamete chromosome number of

b. 14.

Plant species A has a diploid number of 28. Plant species B has a diploid number of 14. A new, sexually reproducing species C arises as an allopolyploid from hybridization of A and B. The diploid number of C would probably be

d. 42.

Two closely related populations of mice have been separated for a long period by a river. Climatic change causes the river to dry up, thereby bringing the mice populations back into contact in a zone of overlap. Which of the following is not a possible outcome when they meet?

c. They interbreed in the region of overlap, producing an inferior hybrid. Subsequent interbreeding between inferior hybrids produces progressively superior hybrids over several generations.

As a result of deforestation, the number of different habitats in a particular locale declines while, at the same time, the rate of cladogenesis in a particular lineage of animals in this locale increases. Choose the feature that most likely accounts for this observation.

e. increased sexual selection

What kind of speciation has occurred in this example, and what has driven it?

b. sympatric speciation, habitat differentiation

According to the concept of punctuated equilibrium, the "sudden" appearance of a new species in the fossil record means that

d. speciation occurred rapidly in geologic time.

According to the concept of punctuated equilibrium,

c. a new species accumulates most of its unique features as it comes into existence.

Which of the following would be a position held by an adherent of the punctuated equilibrium theory?

a. A new species forms most of its unique features as it comes into existence and then changes little for the duration of its existence.


e. occurs via anagenesis and cladogenesis, but only the latter increases biodiversity.

The origin of a new plant species by hybridization coupled with nondisjunction is an example of

b. sympatric speciation.

If these fly species lost the ability to fly independently of each other (the result of separate mutation events in each lineage), then the flightless condition in these species could be an example of

b. species selection.

In each fly species, the entire body segment that gave rise to the original flight wings is missing. The mutation(s) that led to the flightless condition probably affected the ____ genes, making the initial mutants examples of ____.

c. Hox; complete metamorphosis

If the foods preferred by each species are found on different parts of the island, and if the flies mate and lay eggs on their food sources, regardless of the location of the food sources, then the speciation events involving these fly species may have been driven, at least in part, by which of the following?

e. habitat differentiation

If the males' halteres have species-specific size, shape, color, and use in courtship displays, and if the species' ranges overlap, then the speciation events may have been driven, at least in part, by which of the following?

d. sexual selection

Which of these events seem(s) to have occurred among the fly populations on the island?

e. 1, 2, and 3

Fly species W, found in a certain part of the island, produces fertile offspring with species Y. Species W does not produce fertile offspring with species X or Z. If no other species can hybridize, then species W and Y

e. A, B, and C

Which of these fly organs, as they exist in current fly populations, best fits the description of an exaptation?

b. halteres

Which of the following statements about speciation is correct?

e. Speciation is included within the concept of macroevolution.

Which of the following would be an example of macroevolution?

c. evolution of modern humans, Homo sapiens, from australopithecine ancestors

Males of one species sing only during rainy conditions; males of another species sing only when it is not raining.

A. behavioral

One species lives only in tree holes; another species lives only in streams.

C. habitat

Females of one species choose mates based on song quality; females of another species choose mates on the basis of size.

A. behavioral

One species mates for two weeks in early April; another species mates for three weeks in early May.

D. temporal

Males of one species are too small to perform amplexus (an action that stimulates ovulation) with females of all other species.

E. mechanical

This kind of isolation is most similar to which of the following reproductive isolating mechanisms?

d. habitat isolation

What is the mechanism for keeping the two frog species separate?

a. the postzygotic barrier called hybrid inviability

Theoretically, the production of sterile mules by interbreeding between female horses and male donkeys should

c. reinforce postzygotic barriers between horses and donkeys.

The biological species concept is inadequate for grouping

c. asexual organisms.

Races of humans are unlikely to evolve extensive differences in the future for which of the following reasons?

b. III only

Which graph best depicts the trends in genotypic frequencies that would be expected to occur over time?

b. graph B

If it should happen that some of these fleas develop a strong preference, instead, for cattle blood and mate only with fleas that, likewise, prefer cattle blood, it is possible that over time ____ will occur.

e. 1 through 5

Which example below will most likely guarantee that two closely related species will remain distinct biological species?

e. reproductive isolation from one another

A defining characteristic of allopatric speciation is

c. geographic isolation.

The Hawaiian islands are a great showcase of evolution because of intense

b. adaptive radiation and allopatric speciation.

All of the following have contributed to the diversity of organisms on the Hawaiian archipelago except that

d. the islands are very young in geologic time.

What must have happened following the initial colonization event to account for the current situation?

d. 1, 3, and 4

A rapid method of speciation that has been important in the history of flowering plants is

e. polyploidy.

Plant species A has a diploid number of 8. A new species, B, arises as an autopolyploid from A. The diploid number of B would probably be

c. 16.

Autopolyploidy is a speciation process that begins with an event during

c. meiosis.

Which of the following applies to both anagenesis and cladogenesis?

c. speciation

Which of the following statements about species, as defined by the biological species concept, is (are) correct?

c. I and III

What is generally true of two sibling species?

a. They shared a common ancestor recently in evolutionary time.

Which of the various species concepts identifies species based on the degree of genetic exchange between their gene pools?

c. biological

For which two species concepts are anatomical features the primary criterion for determining species identities?

d. 3 and 5

Which species concept becomes difficult to confirm because of this fact?

a. biological

Which species concept is most applicable in this example?

e. biological

Which species concept is this biologist most closely utilizing?

a. ecological

What was the species concept used by Linnaeus?

b. morphological

Which species concept will you have to use?

e. morphological

Which of the following is not considered an intrinsic isolating mechanism?

c. geographic isolation

What type of reproductive barrier is most obviously separating these different species?

a. habitat isolation

Which of the following must occur during a period of geographic isolation in order for two sibling species to remain genetically distinct following their geographic reunion in the same home range?

d. reproductive isolation

two species of orchids with different floral anatomy

E. mechanical

two species of trout that breed in different seasons

B. temporal

two species of meadowlarks with different mating songs

C. behavioral

two species of garter snakes live in the same region, but one lives in water and the other lives on land

D. habitat

two species of pine shed their pollen at different times

B. temporal

mating fruit flies recognize the appearance, odor, tapping motions, and sounds of members of their own species, but not of other species

C. behavioral

the scarlet oak is adapted to moist bottomland, whereas the black oak is adapted to dry upland soils

D. habitat

Pathogenic bacteria found in many hospitals are antibiotic resistant.

B. directional selection

Cattle breeders have improved the quality of meat over the years by which process?

c. stabilizing selection

The allele that causes phenylketonuria (PKU) is harmful, except when an infant's diet lacks the amino acid, phenylalanine. What maintains the presence of this harmful allele in a population's gene pool?

b. stabilizing selection

Mules are relatively long-lived and hardy organisms that cannot, generally speaking, perform successful meiosis. Which statement about mules is true?

a. They have a relative evolutionary fitness of zero.

Heterozygote advantage should be most closely linked to which of the following?

b. stabilizing selection

In equatorial Africa, all of the following factors contribute to keeping the sickle-cell allele at a high frequency in the population, except

E) frequency-dependent selection.

Which statement about variation is most true?

D) All new alleles are the result of nucleotide variability.

If long-term climatic change resulted in all seeds becoming hard, what type of selection would then operate on the finch population?

b. directional selection

What is true of the trait whose frequency distribution in a large population appears above? It has probably undergone

b. stabilizing selection.

If the unimodal distribution shown above becomes a bimodal distribution over time, then

B) a situation of balanced polymorphism may be produced.

If the curve shifts to the left or to the right, there is no gene flow, and the population size consequently increases over successive generations, then which of these is (are) probably occurring?

c. 2 and 3

Male satin bowerbirds adorn structures that they build, called "bowers," with parrot feathers, flowers, and other bizarre ornaments in order to attract females. Females inspect the bowers and, if suitably impressed, allow males to mate with them, after which they go off to nest by themselves. The evolution of this behavior is best described as due to

c. sexual selection.

In many animal species, mature males are much larger than mature females. This size difference can be attributed to

E) A, B, and C

Adult male vervet monkeys have red penises and blue scrotums. Males use their colorful genitalia in dominance displays wherein they compete with each other for access to females. The coloration of the male genitalia is best explained as the result of ____, and specifically of ____.

C) sexual selection; intrasexual selection

Which of the following is most likely to have been produced by sexual selection?

A) a male lion's mane

When imbalances occur in the sex ratio of sexual species that have two sexes (i.e., other than a 50:50 ratio), the members of the minority sex often receive a greater proportion of care and resources from parents than do the offspring of the majority sex. This is most clearly an example of

e. frequency-dependent selection.

Female wasps, which are protected by the use of a painful stinger, often make their presence conspicuous by rapidly moving their usually long antennae. These wasps are often mimicked by flies with short antennae who give the appearance of rapidly moving long antennae by waving their forelegs in front of their bodies. Which of the following statements concerning this behavior is not consistent with current evolutionary theory?

D) Given enough time, these flies will develop longer antennae and become perfect mimics.

The same gene that causes various coat patterns in wild and domesticated cats also causes the cross-eyed condition in these cats, the cross-eyed condition being slightly maladaptive. In a hypothetical environment, the coat pattern that is associated with crossed eyes is highly adaptive, with the result that both the coat pattern and the cross-eyed condition increase in a feline population over time. Which statement is best supported by these observations?

b. Phenotype is often the result of compromise.

A proficient engineer can easily design skeletal structures that are more functional than those currently found in the forelimbs of such diverse mammals as horses, whales, and bats. That the actual forelimbs of these mammals do not seem to be optimally arranged is because

e. natural selection is generally limited to modifying structures that were present in previous generations and in previous species.

Gene flow is a concept best used to describe an exchange between

c. populations.

Which of these is closest to the allele frequency in the founding population?

a. 0.1 a, 0.9 A

If one assumes that Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium applies to the population of colonists on this planet, about how many people will have attached earlobes when the planet's population reaches 10,000?

a. 100

If four of the original colonists died before they produced offspring, the ratios of genotypes could be quite different in the subsequent generations. This is an example of

c. genetic drift.

A trend toward the decrease in the size of plants on the slopes of mountains as altitudes increase is an example of

a. a cline.

Which of the following is one important evolutionary feature of the diploid condition?

D) Diploid organisms express less of their genetic variability than haploid organisms.

The outcome of the conflict between bacteria and bacteriophage at any point in time results from

a. frequency-dependent selection.

Over the course of evolutionary time, what should occur?

d. Methylated and nonmethylated strains should be maintained among both bacteria and bacteriophages, with ratios that vary over time.

The Darwinian fitness of an individual is measured by

a. the number of its offspring that survive to reproduce.

If a phenotypic polymorphism lacks a genetic component, then

B) natural selection cannot act upon it to make a population better adapted over the course of generations.

When we say that an individual organism has a greater fitness than another individual, we specifically mean
that the organism

e. leaves more viable offspring than others of its species.

Which of the following statements best summarizes evolution as it is viewed today?

e. It is the differential survival and reproduction of the most fit phenotypes.

The higher the proportion of loci that are "fixed" in a population, the lower is that population's

D) A, B, and C

If neutral variation is truly "neutral," then it should have no effect on

d. relative fitness.

An African butterfly species exists in two strikingly different color patterns

D. disruptive selection

Brightly colored peacocks mate more frequently than do drab peacocks.

E. sexual selection

Most Swiss starlings produce four to five eggs in each clutch.

C. stabilizing selection

Fossil evidence indicates that horses have gradually increased in size over geologic time

B. directional selection

The average birth weight for human babies is about 3 kg.

C. stabilizing selection

A certain species of land snail exists as either a cream color or a solid brown color. Intermediate individuals are relatively rare.

D. disruptive selection

In peas, a gene controls flower color such that R = purple and r = white. In an isolated pea patch, there are 36 purple flowers and 64 white flowers. Assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, what is the value of q for this population?

e. 0.80

Which of the following is not a requirement for maintenance of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

A) an increasing mutation rate

In which population is the frequency of the allele for brown feathers highest?

D. They are all the same.

In which population would it be least likely that an accident would significantly alter the frequency of the brown allele?

B. Population 2

Which population is most likely to be subject to the bottleneck effect?

A. Population 1

The probability of a mutation at a particular gene locus is ____, and the probability of a mutation in the genome of a particular individual is ____.

B) low; high

Which factor is the most important in producing the variability that occurs in each generation of humans?

B) sexual recombination

In modern terminology, diversity is understood to be a result of genetic variation. Sources of variation for evolution include all of the following except

a. mistakes in translation of structural genes.

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