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The Unification of Italy
Terms in this set (83)
What ruler united Italy for a brief time?
Who divided Italy into several large and small states?
the Congress of Vienna
What territories did Austria rule?
Lombardy and Venetia
What did reactionary monarchs in other states try to do?
undo the reforms made during Napoleon's time
Despite the division, what continued to grow?
the Italian word for "resurgence"
What were the goals of the risorgimento?
liberation and unification
What was the name of the one of the secret societies nationalists formed?
Who was one of the most famous member of the Carbonari?
What movement did he start?
the Young Italy movement
What were they dedicated to?
spreading the ideas of the risorgimento
Who did Mazzini think should rule Italy?
Who led revolts in Italian states?
liberals and nationalists
Where did they overthrow Austrian rule?
Lombardy and Venetia
What did they force other rulers to do?
agree to constitutions
What did they seize in 1849?
What type of government did they establish there?
Who governed it?
Mazzini and two other leaders
Where did Austria recapture some of its former possessions?
in the north
Who returned to power in other states?
What was the only kingdom that remained completely independent?
the Kingdom of Sardinia
What did conservative and clerical elements among the nationalists call for?
a federation of Italian states ruled by the pope
Why did liberals oppose this?
the pope did not support their revolt in 1849
What kind of government did some Italians want?
a constitutional monarchy
Ruled by who?
King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia
Who was his chief minister?
Camillo Benso di Cavour
Who was he?
a republican and an Italian patriot
Who did Cavour and the Sardinian parliament support?
Who actually governed the kingdom of Sardinia?
What country's parliamentary government did he admire?
What did he want Sardinia to do?
lead the way in uniting and industrializing Italy
What did Cavour do for Sardinia?
- reorganized and strengthened the Sardinian army
- helped establish banks, factories, and railroads
- improved trade with other countries
What did Cavour believe in?
separation of church and state
As a result of this belief, what did he try to do?
reduce the political influence of the church
What group did he try to suppress?
the Jesuit order
How did he increase Sardinia's political influence?
he sided with France and Great Britain during the Crimean War, and participated in the 1856 peace conference that ended that war
What kingdom did Cavour see as the greatest barrier to Italian unification?
Who did he propose an alliance with?
Who was the French emperor?
What did he want to do?
increase French influence
What did he think would happen if Austria left the Italian states?
France might be able to dominate them instead
What did Cavour hope to gain from the alliance with France?
with Austria out of Italy, other Italian states would join Sardinia in a alliance against both France and Austria
What did Napoleon say needed to happen so that he could send French troops to help Sardinia?
Austria needed to be provoked into declaring war on Sardinia
Where would France help drive Austrians out of?
Lombardy and Venetia
What did Cavour promise France in return for their help?
the French-speaking regions of Nice and Savoy
Why did Austria declare war on Sardinia?
they heard Sardinia was making war preparations
Where did Sardinian and French forces drive Austrians out of?
Where did they march to?
Where did Italian patriots overthrow their Austrian rulers?
Tuscany, Modena, and Parma
What did they ask for?
to be annexed to Sardinia
What did Napoleon fear would happen?
Prussia would combine forces with Austria
As a result of this, what did he do?
signed an armistice with Austria
According to this agreement, what kingdom received what?
- Sardinia received Lombardy
- Austria kept Venetia
Where were Austrian rulers returned to power?
Tuscany, Modena, and Parma
Even though he only delivered on part of his bargain, Napoleon still wanted what?
Nice and Savoy
Why did Victor Emmanuel II agree to this?
he did not want to lose everything Sardinia had gained
What happened after this?
Italians did not give up, and again overthrew their Austrian rulers
These areas eventually held a plebiscite (a vote), where they decided on...?
joining the kingdom of Sardinia
What became a target for the Italian nationalists?
the Two Sicilies
What made up the kingdom of the Two Sicilies?
the southern half of the Italian peninsula, and the island of Sicily
Who led the way?
What did Garibaldi do?
recruited an army of more than 1000 soldiers
What was this quest called?
the Expedition of the Thousand
What happened on this quest?
they invaded and captured Sicily
What did they seize next?
Naples, the capital city
Who did they drive north to the border of the Papal States?
King Francis II and his troops
Who was King Francis II?
the King of the Two Sicilies
Where did Garibaldi plan to go next?
continue north to capture Rome and then Venetia
What did Cavour begin to fear?
Garibaldi would replace Victor Emmanuel II as Italy's leader and set up his own republic
What did Cavour do as a result of this fear?
sent his army south to stop Garibaldi's advance
What happened in the process?
Sardinia annexed most of the territory of the Papal States
Where did Garibaldi and Emmanuel II meet?
What did Garibaldi promise?
he would support the establishment of the kingdom of Italy, with Emmanuel II as the king
What did he ask to serve as?
governor of Naples
What was Victor Emmanuel's answer?
he fear Garibaldi's popularity
What were the only two states in Italy that did not hold plebiscites?
Venetia and Rome
What did they vote for?
national unity under the king of Sardinia
During a meeting in Turin, representatives of various states did what?
confirmed Victor Emmanuel II as king of Italy
In 1866, what did Italy gain from Austria?
In 1870, what did Rome's citizens vote for?
union with Italy
What happened the following year?
Rome was declared the capital of Italy
What were some problems Italy faced?
- few Italians had experience with self-government
- regions of the country were divided by cultural traditions
- tensions grew between the industrialized north and the agricultural south
- the standard of living was low
- labor problems arose
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