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Intro to Computing Final
Terms in this set (320)
In order for something to be considered a computer it must have a keyboard attached
What was used to make analyzing results faster for the 1890 census?
punch cards and punch card readersProcessor
When using a search engine like google, bing, yahoo!, or duckduck go, what keyword can be used to provide you with a definition of a certain term?
What word is interchangeable with computer?
What educational background is required to write algorithms?
d- no educational background is required
An agent could be a
computer, human, or program
______ was the name of the first electronic computer, and it was located in ________
Eniac and Philadelphia
The instructions written in software are followed or executed by _______
______ made computers more affordable and allowed them to have more complex CPUs.
________,________, and ________ were three early technologies that increased ones' desire to own a personal computer
Email, game, word processing
Complexity is _____ to manufacture, though it remains _________ to design.
Software is a collective term for
Abstracting requires you to separate information into two categories: ________ and __________.
Relevant and irrelevant
A program acts on _______ and results in ________.
Inputs and outputs
What us a UI?
c - user interface
Which of the following is not a common computer metaphor?
b- door handles
Which of the following is not an instance?
a- exactly what you tell them to do
A good way to learn how to use a new application or piece of software is to
d- click around
Each time you paste, what is made of that saved version?
What key sequence does ^C indicate to the user?
Ctrl+C or Command+C
When computers went mobile, this popular device was now a problem
What company introduced the mouse?
Digital is better than analog encoding of information because with digital it is possible to have a(n)_____
Software designers help users understand their software through the use of _____
Open, New, Close, and Save can usually be found in the ____ menu
Perfect reproduction is a property of _____ information
In an application with menus, undo, cut, copy, and paste can usually be found in the _____ menu.
___,____.and____ are the three steps of the placeholder technique
Hide, edit, and restore
___ and ___ are important to keep in mind when using a placeholder
Easy to type, not used anywhere else
____ is any indication that the computer is still processing a task or has already completed it.
Overlapping windows were first used in the user interface of the ____
Usually applications from the same vendor are
Saving information for possible reuse is called
If the Internet consisted of four computers there would be 6 possible computers, if 5 then 10. With 10 computers?
What is the potential number of IPv4 addresses available
Root name servers
c- maintain the relationship between IP addresses and symbolic computer names
This type of communication results in the sending and receiving of info at different times
The internet is fast enough to mimic ________ communication
The internet and the world wide web are different names for the same thing
what folders contain
d- both files and folders
All IP addresses of authoritative name servers for TLDs are maintained and managed by 13 _________ servers
A communication that goes out to many people within a specific target audience is called a ________
A hierarchy of related computers on a network is called a(n)
Computers on an Ethernet network "tap" into a cable called the
________ is the main technology for local area networks
Local networks that support communications wholly within an organization are called
Local networks that support comm wholly within an org are called
In a Web address, the http:/// is the
Files are often sent over the Internet via a process known by the acronym ______
In the client/server structure, the consumer's computer is the _______ and the business's computer is the _________
client + server
When we get files from a server we are ___________ them. When we put files on a server we are ___________ them.
Downloading and Uploading
Instead of typing in the IP address, we use symbolic names, which are also called ________
In URLs, _______ are not case sensitive, but _______ may be case sensitive
Domain names + Path names
When moving inside of a directory hierarchy, moving up is the same as moving _________ and moving down is the same as moving ___________
Higher and lower
HTML tags must be
c- does not matter
Space inserted to make a document more readable is called
b- white space
The <p> </p> tags indicate the beginning and end of a
The attribute specifying a blue background is
style = "background-color:blue"
The ../ notation in a relative path of hypertext reference means to
b- open the parent folder
To place an image on the right side of the window with the text filling the area to the left of the image, the tag would need to look like
d- <img src="mountains.jpg" style="float:right"/>
The dimensions for an image on a web page
b- are set using the width and height attributes
Betsy created some nested tags as displayed here... Did she nest the tags correctly?
d- Yes, the tags are nested correctly
What tags are required for an HTML page?
c- html, head, body
If you want to display an image without any text around it, you should nest it inside of which tag(s)?
The ___ tag is a way to get more than one consecutive space in a line of a web page.
___ tags are tags between other tags
Specifications inside a tag are called
The scr in an image tag stands for ____.
To put the 10 greatest inventions of all time, in order, on a web page, you should use a(n)____
____ is the main language that defines how a web page should look.
___ is the tag for the heading that is the largest and the darkest
HTML ____ white space.
____ separates the content from the border.
Some Web pages are "invisible." That is, no other search engine will return them in a query. Why do these pages exist?
d- All of the above (no other Web page links to them; they are synthetic; they were not written in HTML)
The main responsibility of a crawler is to
d- build a list of tokens that are associated with each page
When picking additional sources you should choose
a- independent sources
Enclosing search terms in quotes asks for pages with
b- The search terms in the exact order as written
Google usually ignores numbers. What symbol could you add to a query to make sure Google uses the number as part of the query?
When searching on Google, this is the same as using the AND keyword
A primary source is
b- A person with direct knowledge
Who is in charge of the World Wide Web?
d- no one
When should a researcher be skeptical of a primary source?
c- Always, the researcher should verify the information from other sources
After finding the Web Page you want, what is the next question you should ask yourself?
a- Is the information authoritative?
The higher the ________ is, the closer to the top of the list a web page will be in the returned results of a search query
________________ in Google search queries are interpreted as AND
The main work of the _____________ is to build an index
If a web page meets all the authoritative rules given in this chapter, it can still contain __________________ information
_____________________ is the keyboard shortcut for finding certain words on a Web Page
Ctrl+F or Command+F
Treating query items as independent is almost _______________ what you actually want
Wikipedia is validated by _________________
Wikipedia is not considered a __________________ source
Crawlers crawl less than ________________ of the Web
To find corroborating information on the Web, you should always _________________ with other independent web page
The first step in the debugging process is to
b- reproduce the problem
Computers do exactly the same thing every time when given the same input. What is this property called?
a- contain bugs
When using computers, what is the most common source of problems?
b- human error
What does the "s" stand for in https?
When testing it is never possible to establish the ___ of a program.
Not only is the computer unable to ___ itself, we can't___ it directly, either
What built-in tool in most browsers can help you debug a Web page?
b- error console
How do we know the software running safety-critical systems is perfect?
d- we cant
You should expect___ when interacting with software
An alternative approach to get around a problem is called a(n)___
A(n)___program continues to operate when there is a problem, although its efficiency may be degraded.
A(n)___ program shuts down to avoid causing problems.
Computers don't understand what we___, only what we ___
mean - say
Bugs in commercial software are usually fixed___
in an updated version
Computers are ___, which means that they will do exactly the same thing every time if given the same input
___is the most obvious HTML error
forgetting to end tag
Errors in HTML code are generally not tough to ___, just tough to ___
fix - find
Program testing reveals only the ___of bugs, never their___
presence - absense
How many symbols can be represented by four bits?
PandA representation is what kind of system?
What was used to help structure the digitized Oxford English Dictionary?
This defines how characters relate to each other when they are compared
c. collating sequence
When using physical phenomena to encode information, name one potential solution if there are more than two alternatives
c- adopt one was present and all the others as absent
Information describing information is called:
K bits in a sequence yield how many symbols?
b- (2 to the power of k) 2^k
PandA is short for _____________.
present and absent
_________ encode information on DVDs and CDs.
bumps or pits
Hexadecimal is base ________.
Grouping binary digits in groups of four makes converting to _____________ easier.
_________ is the name we use for two fundamental patterns of digital information based on presence and absence of a phenomenon.
Information is said to be ____________, or distinct; there is no gray.
The number of digits is the __________ or the ___________ of the numbering system.
base - radix
The more symbols you want, the more _____________ you need.
_____________ is representing information with symbols.
put the following binary values representing the intensity of green in order from least intense to most intense...
d- 1100 000,1111 0000, 1111 1100, 1111 1111
The RGB setting for blue is
d- 0000 0000 0000 0000 1111 1111
people tend to be sensitive to small changes in ____, but not to small changes in ____.
a- brightness, color
analog information is
According to the Nyquist rule, the sampling rate for sound should be roughly
c- twice of what humans can hear
The accuracy of a digitized sound is determined by
D- all the above
A digital to analog converter
a- changes digital information to analog waves
Do GIF files display vertical or horizontal bands better?
Jessica Simpsons "A little bit" is 3 min and 47 sec long. How many bits is this?
Raymond Kurzweil is known as the inventor of
b- text-to-speech generation
RGB values are usually stored as three ____.
___ is the limit that defines the max rate that information can be transmitted.
speed of light
All colors with equal intensities of RGB subpixels are either, ___, ____, or shades of gray.
____is the term used when digital values are converted to create an analog sound.
____ sound removes the highest and lowest samplings as part of its compression algorithm.
Pixel color is determined solely by the ___ of the color.
In OCR, each pixel is an estimate of how ___ the corresponding area is.
On the computer, ___ means to store or transmit information with fewer bits.
A process that allows the computer to "read" printed characters is called ____.
optical character recognition
To increase the ___ of a photo, you should increase the difference between the light and dark parts.
when converting analog sound to digital sound, using ___bits yields a more accurate digitization.
JPEG is to still images what ___ is to motion pictures.
The ___ states that bits can represent all discrete information even though the bits have no meaning of their own.
bias free universal medium principal
GIF images are limited to ___ colors.
A machine instruction uses how many bytes of memory?
Converting code that a programmer writes into assembly code is called
What has made computers faster?
b- making everything smaller
Which of the following is used for input and output?
b- hard disk
The processor has how many moving parts?
From smallest to largest, the correct order of prefixes is
b- Kilo, Mega, giga, tera
Modern computers know
c- about a hundred instructions
Rerunning a program with the same data produces
b- Exactly the same result every time
If this.Opacity += 1.0; increases the opacity, what line of code would decrease the opacity?
b- this.Opacity-= 1.0;
Which of the following characteristics of a computer depends on the number of Fetch/Executive Cycles it performs per second?
_____ deterministically execute instructions to process information.
Without the _______ _______, the processor is not capable of doing anything interesting.
___ is an acronym for the name of the location where computer programs run and data is stored.
The ____ _____ part of the computer is the hardware part of the Fetch/Executive Cycle
In addition to fetching instructions, the F/E cycle also fetches
The math in the computer is done by the
The ________ encodes keystrokes into binary form for the computer
The computer's clock speed is measured in
Every memory location has a(n)
The _______ ______ keeps track of the next instruction to execute
A(n) __________ __ _______ sometimes conducts electricity and sometimes doesn't.
semiconductor or silicon
The flow of electricity in a channel in a semiconductor is controlled by a(n)
______ ______ ____ is a long list of words, more accurately, a long series of 0's and 1's that make up a computer program.
binary object file
A _____ is required for every peripheral connected to your computer
_________ ______ is a program that extends the operations a computer can perform beyond the hardwired machine instructions.
An algorithm is an
c- systematic method for producing a specified result
Algorithms are used by
c- various agents
Algorithms must always
b- produce output or state that there is no solution
Algorithms are guaranteed to work
b- 100% of the time
When writing an algorithm in a natural language it is helpful to use ___ instead of ____
b- nouns instead of pronouns
If an algorithm is performed with the same data, at different times with different agents the output will be
a- the same
Programs containing ---- cannot be verified exhaustively
How many algorithms can solve one specific problem
A program is an algorithm that has been -----
A(n) __________ __ _______ sometimes conducts electricity and sometimes doesn't.
semi conductor or silicon
Algorithm must be ----; they eventually stop with the right output or a statement that no solution is possible
lgorithms must be definite. They must specify ordered steps, including details on how to ---- -----
The steps in an algorithm must be ----- so that the agent is able to do it
When you forget your password
a- the system admin gives you a one-time password to use and then prompts you to create a new password
Copyrighted material may be used:
only when written permission is granted
If you commit a crime on the Internet, who can determine your real identity?
d- the law
When emailing, how many topics should you limit each individual email to?
When using a 1-way cipher, who knows your password?
a- only you
Under most circumstances, what prevents a stranger from resetting your user password?
c- security questions
__________ is etiquette for the Internet.
A(n) __________ is a programmed response to your email that's sent when you are away.
The individual who controls access to a computer system, including logins and passwords, is called a(n) __________
_________ are nonmaterial, human creations that people can claim ownership to.
New work created from existing work is called a(n) __________.
Information in the __________ is free for anyone to use.
__________ is the illegal use of email to scam users into surrendering their personal information--usually items like Social Security numbers, bank account numbers, and credit card numbers.
You don't buy software, you ______ it
Before posting very emotional content you should ____
sleep on it
Computers store passwords, but they are ____ for security
private browsing does not store data on
d- neither the computer itself and the server
Macs do not need virus protection software because it is built into the OS
Which of the following is an example of identity theft?
All the above
what is the greatest risk you can expose your computer to?
You discover that credit information about you is inaccurate. Which principle does this violate
Which Fair Information Practice provides for ways to correct your faculty credit record?
Data on EU citizens is
Protected even outside the EU
What is the biggest problem in computer security
information from people in EU counties can be shared outside of the EU, providing the business or government follows the principles of
Fair information practices
When should you enter sensitive information in a pop-up?
digital encryption is
the use of math to make communication unreadable to snoops
all the above
is the right of people to choose freely under what circumstances and to what extent they will reveal themselves, their attitudes, and their behaviors to others
in regard to information technology, privacy is primarily concerned with
personal information and communication
in an anonymous form of payment
serves as a guideline for protecting personal privacy in regard to international trade
OECD Fair Information Practices
provides a benchmark by which businesses can measure how well they are protecting the privacy of individuals
OECD Fair Information Practices
is responsible for maintaining personal information and is held accountable for it.
The fair information practices standards conflict with the information gathering goals of
businesses and governments
What act ended Americans reasonable protection from government snooping
The patriot act
What is a combination of encryption and decryption
two way cipher
What is information before it isn encrypted
What crypto system is the best-known public key crypto-system
Setting what in your browser may stop certain Websites from tracking you
do not track
What is software that monitors and records details of computer usage?
What contains codes that reproduces itself when the program runs
The difficulty of factoring _____ as the key grows in size
Text too wide to fit into a cell is truncated.
Cells in a spreadsheet are 10 characters wide.
Relative Cell references change as associated values change.
Copy/Paste will duplicate a formula, but it wont utilize relative and absolute cell references.
The Small box or handle in a selected cells lower-right corner is used to move the contents of a cell.
A cell reference cannot contain a relative and an absolute reference at the same time.
Column References in cell ranges must be typed using uppercase.
To change a relative cell reference to an absolute reference, you should use the ampersand (&)
Spreadsheet columns can be hidden but rows can not.
A spreadsheet can import any kind of data.
Functions and column letters are _____________ in formulas.
not case sensitive
How many different ways are there to combine absolute and relative references to a single cell?
Respectively, rows and columns are designated with
Which of the following is a valid range of cells
all the above
Which of the following is not a valid range of cells
all the above
How many cells are in the range B2:D7
Spreadsheet formulas start with
Delimited cell entries mean
cell entries that end with a certain character
What function would you use to change the color of certain cells bases on the value stored inside of them?
Which of the following is a completely relative cell reference?
If the formula =$b$3*.062 Is copied from cell B4 to B5, the result will be
If $G5 appeared in a formula, you'd know
the G is absolute and the 5 is relative
If a cell does not start with an equal sign then cell contains
Cell entries are __________; that is, the computer will not consider any of their constituent parts
the ________ statement finds the maximum value in column j for rows 3-7
The ______ statement finds the minim value
A rectangular group of one or more cells is called an
the small box in the lower-right corner of a selected cell is called the
A _____ cell reference automatically transforms a formula when it is pasted or filled
An _______ cell reference retains a reference to a fixed position then is pasted
Data imported into a spreadsheet should generally be
tab delimited ASCI
using ________ automatically fills and increment values
__________ are formula built into a spread sheet to make it easier to create calculations
use the _____ function to find the average of the cells
use the ----- function to find the largest of the numbers in a cell
a _________ is range of cells filled with increments of a certain type of data
The PMT () function returns ________ because it's money you owe
to change the formatting on a chart you should ________on that item to access the appropriate menus
________ means "join letter sequences together"
in spreadsheets, names
all the above
all of the following are basic spreadsheet principles except
"explaining everything" in a spreadsheet means
you should easily be able to tell what every cell means
allows you to display into in more than one way
to get the first characters in a cell you should use the
LEFT( ) function
conditional formatting can change the
d- more than one of the above
defining names for a spreadsheet allows you to refer to cells
if you saw regHours in a spreadsheet formula you'd know its a
whenever a cell is changed
autofiltering can only be used on
tables that have column headings
all of the above
whenever a value in a spreadsheet is changed
everything is recalculated
spreadsheets are great for playing _____, that is, they are useful for putting together serious possible scenarios
______ are a good way to explain a spreadsheet formula
______ allows for the application of interpretation to the data in a spreadsheet
____ info that is not currently needed is a good way to make a spreadsheet clear and easy to use
a single cell or a related rectangular group of cells is called a
____ allow for programmatic manipulation and analysis of data in spreadsheets
when you ________ for a spreadsheet you create a symbolic reference for a range of cells
name a range
a _____ is a named alternative to a spreadsheet based on different inputs
the _____ is the interface for managing scenarios
____ allows the selection of certain spreadsheet rows based on specified criteria
The top of the game tree is called the
The ability of any computer to imitate another computer is known as the
They programmed Watson to do this as the game progressed
NP- complete problems
must consider every possible solution to find the best one
One thing humans can do that computers cannot is
make computers work properly
How many instructions are sufficient to program any computation?
Putting several computers to work on the same problem is called
Calculating every possible move in a chess game generates a
In a game, looking ahead for potential moves is called
name of the IBM computer designed for chess
A computer is intelligent if it acts enough like a ? to deceive a ?
human - human
When playing chess, humans use intuition and experience. A computer uses
an evaluation function
For computer chess, a ___ shows the result of every possible legal move for the computer along with a numeric evaluation of each move
When playing jeopardy, Watson was not connected to the
are rules about rules
The _____ maintains that any computer can be made to imitate any other computer
To the extent that creativity is ______, a computer can be creative
The main basis for technical competition among manufacturers is
any hardwired computer instructions that can be simulated here
_______ something that computers cannot do
___ is a problem that computer cannot solve
the halting problem
Programs do not understand ___
___ are problems with no practical algorithmic solutions
NP complete problems
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