What is a group?
two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as "us" (Marvin Shaw, 1981)
What is Group think?
the tendency of decision-making groups to suppress dissent in the interests of group harmony
What is mere presence?
individual effort that is not competitive (co-participants working individually on a non-competitive activity)
What are the main studies of social facilitation?
Triplett's bicycle racing study, Dashiell's audience effects study, Flyod Allport's co-action effects study, Alder&Tatum's avoidance learning study, and Zajonc's arousal study.
What is audience effect?
performing a task while people are watching or anticipating that others will watch
What is co action effect?
participants perform the same task individually, but in plain view of one another
How is task difficulty related to social facilitation? Discuss this in terms of the findings in the Michaels et al., pool study
Task difficulty is a moderator. The harder the task, the less likely the participant is to perform well in front of an audience
What are the three explanations for the arousal associated with social facilitation?
evaluation apprehension, distraction, mere presence
What were the main studies of social loafing?
Tug of war studies, Ingham
Shouting/Clapping Study Latane
Exercise Bicycle Study Sweeney
What is social loafing?
individuals to exert less effort when they are working towards a common goal than if they are individually accountable (Kitty Geneve in NY)
What is the primary explanation for social loafing?
Individuals think that somebody else will do the task
What are the two major moderators of loafing?
loaf less when the task is challenging, appealing, and everybody can benefit
people loaf less when group members are someone they can relate to such as friends
What are the 3 main explanations for deindividuation?
Perceptual salience, evaluation apprehension, and situational attributions
What is situational attributions?
because "everyone is doing it", can attribute behavior to the situation rather than to something internal
What is deindividuation?
when an individual becomes part of a group and lose individual accountability/ lose sense of self
What are two moderators of deindividuation?
Group size and anonymity in (Johnson & Downing) study replicated Zimbardo experiment; female college students dressed in nurses' uniforms (anonymous participants) were less aggressive in administering shocks than women whose names and personal identities were stressed.
What is a collective?
An assembly of people engaging in a common activity but having little direct interaction with each other
What is group polarization?
Enhancement of pre-existing tendencies, strengthening members initial tendency
Stoner 1961 study
Presented participants first individually and then in group (5 or so) with decision dilemmas around how much risk hypothetical characters should take groups accentuate initial leanings.
Three explanations for group polarization?
Informational Influence Explanation: exposed to supporting arguments that hadn't heard before.
Normative Influence Explanation: people want to fit in so adjust attitude in direction of group
When is group think likely occur?
To preserve group harmony and failure to consider other alternative courses of action
Consequence of group think
Incomplete survey of objectives
Failure to reappraise initially rejected alternatives
Poor information search
Selective bias in processing information at hand
Failure to work out contingency plans
Four symptoms of group think
Close mindedness, Conformity pressure, stereotyped view of component, unquestioned belief in group morality.
What is the minority slowness effect?
tendency for minority member to take longer to express their viewpoint