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socl 4461 final exam set #2
Terms in this set (29)
? of both the robber and his or her victim strongly influence how street robbers commit their crimes.
•Miller (1998) and Brookman and colleagues (2007) found that both male and female robbers believed that women were ? to rob, because women were perceived both as less likely to be armed and as weaker and thus more willing to comply.
•But women still face much lower victimization rates
Why such low victimization rates for women even though they are considered easy targets?
•Male robbers believe that females are unlikely to have much money on them
•Robbery was viewed as a mechanism for achieving status on the streets.
•Victimization of females is unlikely to be admired or increase one's social standing in the masculine social environment of the street, and thus doing so may actually hurt one's reputation.
•robbery is pre-dominantly an ?criminal incident,
•males rob other males ? of the time they commit robbery,
•females target female victims in of incidents
•When male offenders rob as a ?. male offenders are more than three times as likely to rob a male victim than a lone male offender.
NCVS results on robbery and gender
- ? more likely to use guns when comitting robbery
- ? equally likely to use gun against both genders
NCVS results on robbery and gender
-? use violence on victim more when victim is male
? use violence same for all victims
- ? resist in equal percentages against all genders
Robbery in NOLA French Quarter
- ? robbery not immune to the french quarter
- ? robbery is more likely outside the French Quarter
Robbery in NOLA French Quarter:
•What makes some more susceptible?
•being a stranger, being isolated in an unfamiliar area, and being there in search of some illicit action.
•Expressing anger is related to poor emotion regulation (that might reflect maladaptive coping) and is commonly reported as a motive for ? among both men and women.
•Who's more likely to use of violence typically related to 1) power and control
•Women's use of violence is more commonly related to reactive or ? expression (e.g., anger or jealousy) motives
What about self-defense? Do we think there's differences between males and females in using self-defense as a justification for DV
- mixed results
- no robust differences between men and women regarding self-defenses as motive for physical DV
What about accepting attitudes towards DV and what about the relationship between coping styles and DV?
•The more dv is accepted the more likely it is used as a means to maintain control
•Disengagement coping is more strongly related to DV carried out as emotional expression
Results for physical DV motivated by emotional expression/ dysregulation
•? perpetrators were more likely than ? perpetrators to report motives of emotional expression/dysregulation
Among women, positive attitudes toward women's use of violence were related to ? physical DV perpetration for emotional expression/dysregulation
•Results for physical DV motivated by control/tough guise
? perpetrators were more likely to report motives of control/tough guise than ? perpetrators.
Results for physical DV motivated by self-defense
•Past ? was related across the sample
•? coping was related
•Greater frequency of dv perpetration was related for ?
criminal behavior is learned through interactions with family and friends that exposes them to deviant definitions and role models that reinforce deviant behavior.
social learning theory
4 components of Social Learning Theory
1. differntial assosiation
•refers to the interaction of an individual with family and friends
the attitudes or beliefs that help an individual decide if an act is right or wrong
•Even a "wrong" behavior can be believed to be "right" in this case
•the anticipation of rewards or punishments for a particular behavior.
•If an individual receives positive reinforcement for using drugs, it is likely he/she will continue to use.
•Rewards can be non-social: the addictive nature, the thrill, etc.
•engaging a behavior after observing similar behavior
•Solves the dilemma plagued by differential association theory
Akers goes even further to suggest that variations in criminal behavior would also be influenced by four dimensions of the social structure:
1. differential location in social structure
2. differential location in groups
•demographic characteristics that place or locate people in the macro social organization.
•age, sex, race, socioeconomic status or class.
differential location in social structure
•immediate social reference groups- families, work groups, school groups, church groups, etc.
differential location in groups
•Social Structure --> Social Learning -->Crime
Social learning theory
•The social structure is able to provide some causal mechanism for heroin use via ?
•Heroin use is a ? process.
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