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(400AD-1450AD) Middle Ages aka

Dark Ages

(MA) life revolved around the

Catholic Church

(MA) Pope considered____ to _____ and he exercised_____ _____

2nd, God, ultimate authority

(MA) King____ to the______, appointed by______

second, Pope,God


Benedicts Rule

525AD all Monks must be able to read...

the bible

525AD schools established in abbeys for the



universities established

787AD all ______ tied to


1200-1300AD spread of ________people ________ ancient Greek wisdom to Europe

Islamic, reintroduces

(1450-1600AD) rebirth in_____


(1450-1600AD) more people can read_____, and they find that the____ and what the ____ say are not the same

Bible, Bible, priests

(1450-1600AD)______ leads Protestant reformation

Martin Luther

(1450-1600AD)___________ manipulates Church of England for his own purposes, no supernatural consequences

King Henry 8th

(1450-1600AD) known as the "celebrations of a unique human mind"

humanist movement

(1450-1600AD) have power to change your ____ or ______.

life, community

(1450-1600AD) not so much the ____ __ ___ anymore

will of God


The Enlightenment/Age of Reason

(Englight.) ________ leader, founding Father of U.S.

Thomas Paine

(Enlight.) all learning can be based on using ______ and _________(which is supreme)

senses, reasoning

(Enlight.) move away from _____ and toward______, seek God's divinity in _____

Church, nature, nature

Carl von Linne aka _____ _______

Carolus Linnaeus

Linnaeues father of _________, and _______

taxonomy, binomial nomenclature

Linnaeus grouped organisms based on ________ sim. and diff.


Linnaeus introduced concept of ________ among organisms


James Hutton, 1795, is a _______, presented ideas on ______

geologist, gradualism


geographical features are the result of slow geological processes that occur gradually over millions of years

gradualism removed ________ elements, contradicts belied that Earth is only_____ yrs. old

supernatural, 6000

Jean Baptiste Lamarck, 1809, _______ theory, 1st to propose that orgs. can ______

Evolution, change

George Cuvier, father of ________, _______ and ______ fossils found in plaster mines

Paleontology, collected, studied

Cuvier suggested Catastrophism which is said that each population was destroyed by _____ _____ , and replaced by another

natural disaster

Cuvier was first to propose that ________

orgs. can go extinct

Charles Lyell, 1830, wrote principles of _______


Lyell expanded Hutton's gradualism into __________



geological features as result of geological phenomeina that take place over millions of years

Earth is changing at ___ rate that it used to


Charles Darwin surprised to see _____ because he thought he was gonna see ____ and saw ____

llamas, goats, camals

Darwin voyaged to __________ as ____________

South America, companion of captain

Darwin goes on voyage to_____________as captain _______

collect plants, animals, and fossils, maps coast


members of pop. can't travel back and forth from mainland to island

Alfred Wallace developed same theory as ______ by studying in the _________, Wallace published it first, but ______ still gets credit because he had lifetime of ______

Darwin, East Indies, Darwin, research

Darwin conclusion 1

all population have reproductive ability to increase size over generations

Darwin conclusion 2

eventually there will be more organisms in a population then resources can provide for

Darwin conclusion 3

within population, individuals have same trait which are heritable

Darwin conclusion 4

heritable traits occur in slightly varied forms

differential reproductive success

some phenotypes give advance and allow increased ability to survive and reproduce

Darwin's Final Theory

individuals with differential rep. success will produce more offspring increasing the # of individual carrying alleles that confer this advantage

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