Chapter 5 Integumentary System

Prep or Dr. Rotella's test
This system is the most taxed
Integumentary System
The integument covers
The Integumentary includes this.
skin, nails, hair, glands, muscles and nerves
the skin =
cutaneous membrane
functions of the skin
protect, maintain body temperature, detect changes in the environment, vitamin D synthesis, Excretion and absorption
2 main parts of the integument
Epidermis & dermis
surface epithelial (superficial and thin layer)
deeper connective tissue that has nerves and muscles (thicker layer)
Sub cutaneous ( sub Q) & Hypodermis
not part of the skin
90% of epidermal cells
4-5 layers thick
produce keratin
protect skin from heat, microorganisims & chemicals
produce lamellar granules that makes the skin water proof
produce melanin
Langerhans cells
made in red bone marrow and migrate to epidermis
Langerhans cells
immune response
Merkel cells
sensory cells--include tactile disc and neuron = touch
Stratum Granulosum
keratin--losing cell organelles and nuclei
Stratum Granulosum
the transitional layer of living and dead cells
Stratum Corneum
flattened dead cells
Sub Q layer
Deeper part of dermis attaches to
Sub Q
bundles of collagen, coarse elastic fibers, adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves, oil and sweat glands. are found in
Deep dermis
has strength and elasticity , extensibility because of collagen and elastic fibers
dark color
UV light
stimulates melanin production
Hemoglobin in blood
pink-red color
yellow-orange color
genetics and hormones
influence the thickness & where hair is distributed
Hair consists of (2 things)
shaft (part we see) & root (part below)
Hair follicle
surrounds the root
Base of the bulb
includes growing matrix producing cells
Nerves (hair follicle)
hair root plexuses (sensitive to touch)
Muscle (Hair follicle)
Arrector pili (smooth muscle)
andogens are secreted to give us our hair growth
during puberty this occurs
responsible for baldness
3 type of glands
sebaceous, sudoriferous, Ceruminous
Sebaceous Gland
not found in the palms or soles
Sebaceous Gland (function)
help keep hair from drying out, prevents excessive evaporation of H2O, keeps skin soft, inhibits bacteria growth
Eccrine Gland
starts functioning after birth
Apocrine sweat gland
starts functioning after puberty, stimulated during emothional stress and sexual excitement (cold sweat)
Ceruminous Gland
found in the external auditory canal--combines with sebum to produce earwax
Ceruminous Gland
prevent particles from affecting the ear drum and canal
Nail body
major visible portion
Free edge
part extending past finger or toe
part not visible
Loss of collagen fibers
during aging
during aging
loss of elasticity
loss of immune response
during aging
decreased melanocyte function
during aging*
Hair thinning occurs