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Course Wrap up Study Guide
Terms in this set (30)
It is between birth and 2 years old.
Actions and senses, object performance
Example: Two paper towels are set on the ground. An object is placed under the paper towel and the child has to choose where the object is when it is switched up. The child gets this wrong. This would be object performance.
pre operational stage
It is between 2 to 7 years.
Child uses language. Can't make logic to what's really going on. This is where there is disequilibrium with what the child believes and the reality where there is imbalance.
Example: A child distinguishes how much liquid is poured in a cup. As the cup changes shape the child thinks that more liquid is poured there. Egocentrism occurs here because the child is unable to see the reality that others see's. They assume that everyone thinks the same as them. Assimilation occurs here. An example would be calling a dog a cat when older people can distinguish that it's a dog.
concrete operations stage
It is between 7 to 11 years old.
Think more logically and understand more.
Example: The child can now comprehend that is two cups have the same amount of liquid, and one gets poured into another different cup that it will still be the same.There is more conversation occurring here. Transvicity occurs here because the child is able to identify the relationships occurring. This is also an example accommodation occurs where the child can distinguish something from another thing.
formal operations stage
It is 11 to an adult
Now people can think more reasonably and in abstract ways.
Example: The experiment done when someone hits a glass with a feather and it broke, then asking this again their answer would be that the glass would break.
zone of proximal development
"The zone of proximal development is the area of learning that a more knowledgeable other (MKO) assists the student in developing a higher level of learning"
Helping students have a higher education with its teaching.
"The goal is for the MKO to be less involved as the student develops the necessary skills".
"Changing level of support for learning, MKO should adjust amount of support provided based on student's current performance"
There is a difference between the amount of support someone receives.
measurable and observable behavior
observed behavior, not ones that cannot be observed
not involved with thinking/emotions
two or more stimuli
anticipate events, it is involuntary
Ex: Throwing a toy and a dog goes to fetch it.
consequences of responding of learning, it is voluntary
ex: there is a lever that gives something food, if the green button is pushed the food would be given to them. If the red button is pushed then no food would be given this would be punishment in both positive and negative reinforcement.
Positive reinforcement (+ stimulus, pleasant) punishment (+ stimulus, aversive) behavior decreases
Negative reinforcement (- stimulus, aversive) punishment (- stimulus, pleasant) behavior decreases
both of these can increase the behavior or keep it as it is.
when you observe a behavior and learn from it.
Training a dog to be more polite and not ruining the couch. The dog is learning by observed behavior.
you learn by the consequences of others and how they behave
Ex: your older sibling gets in trouble for sneaking out of the house, the younger sibling will learn from its consequences and not sneak out.
changing people's mentality especially students on their academics, motivate and encourage them, it is positive
your own desire to do a behavior for its own and is satisfying for you
There is something that is promised (reward) for someone and you enjoy doing it as well. There is now motivation to do the task.
understand and being able to control our learning. (personal goals are set), (skills)
(look over your your performance)
(then reflect on it)
someone receives a stereotype threat in a group and their performance declines and involves race and ethnicity.
interventions wise schooling would include
"Optimistic teacher-student relationships"
"Challenge over remediation"
"Stressing the expandability of intelligence"
"Affirming domain belongingness"
"Valuing multiple perspectives"
"role models" etc.
Have to test hypothesis and this is repeated more often in the experiment to see different results and different data.
Ex: you want to find the cure for the coronavirus. You have discovered 10 different drugs that might work. You have to continue experimenting to see different data and figure out which one works.
one variable changes than the other variable will change in result of it.
ex: you smell food, you can come to the conclusion that someone is cooking food
looks at what is the relationship between variables, looks at how these variables change
Why do we have ethics review boards
we have this because they review researches and ethical issues that they can encounter.
Experimental vs. quasi-experimental design
Experiment: people are assigned randomly in a study and they don't know the outcome
Quasi: people are assigned in groups and there is an outcomes that they know
Neurons change and this involves chemically what's occurring and structurally, it's a change to what someone can experience
Carol Dweck's "Mindsets" work connection: as someone has a growth mindset neurons are changing when someone changes their mindset, this alteration is neural plasticity
Where do we gather information when we are determining our sense of and self-efficacy?
We determine this by 4 sources:
-performance outcomes: positive and negative experiences individually
-verbal persuasion: high or low self efficacy-other peoples performance
-physiological feedback: body sensations
-vicarious experiences: encouragement and discouragement individually
behavior and cognition, people actions cause a conflict, there is a different belief on what they are doing. They know that it can harm them but continue to do what they do. Ignore the reality of their actions and attitudes.
ex: someone can be a smoker, it is known that smoking will cause lung cancer. So they have cognitive dissonance and ignore that smoking causes lung cancer and there can be consequences.
1) sensory memory
capacity and duration: 0.5-3 seconds, less effort to hold information
last for a really short period of time
2) working memory
capacity and duration: 10-15 seconds more effort to hold information
encoded to long term memory, through this process elaboration is made where there is an increase in new information
3) long term memory
capacity and duration: last for a lifetime
retrieval to working memory
"Testing benefits learning of both verbal and nonverbal materials"
by testing someone in the information, they would be more vulnerable to repeat the information and retrieve it.
more information is retained for students
study sessions are spaced out during the week for about 1/2 an hour each day. The more spaced out they are the better it is to retain information. Retrieval of information occurs during the working memory and gets encoded to the long term memory.
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