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Taken from Cliff Notes

Structural Analysis

(morphemic analysis) the identification of a morpheme to help understand the meaning of a word as a whole. Re in reread


used in basal reading programs to introduce the text before students actually read it.


first formal book in a basal textbook program


a neutral middle vowel

Phoneme Grapheme Correspondence

the relationship between a phoneme and its graphemic representation /s/ spelled as s in sit, c in city, ss in grass

Emergent Reader (Pre K) Prealphabetic

Concepts About Print, begin phonemic awareness

Beginning Reader (K-3) Alphabetic

letters are associated with sound. CVC words (pat). Rhyme and blend words.

Fluent Reader (4-8) Orthographic

work on decoding. spelling. vocabulary. text comprehension (context)

Remedial Reader (3-8) Incompetent

reteach from beginning reader

Phonemic Awareness

sounds (phonemes) of spoken language work together to make words


predictable relationship between between phonemes and graphemes

Phonemic Awareness helps students

notice, think about and manipulate sounds

How to teach phonemic awareness

blending and segmenting

Phonemic awareness is a

subcategory of phonological awareness

Phonological awareness

identifying larger parts of spoken words, syllables, onsets, rimes and phonemes

How to teach phonological awareness

identify and make oral rhymes, syllables in spoken words, onsets and rimes.

Phonics teaches kids to

use the relationship between phonemes and graphemes to read and write words

Independent Reading Level

95% or more correct

Instructional Reading Level

90% - 94% correct

Frustration Reading Level

below 90% correct

How to calculate fluency

total words read - errors = words correct per minute

Vocab: Context clues

hints about the word in the sentences around the word

Vocab: Word Parts

knowing roots, prefix, suffixes can help learn words

Reciprocal teaching

teacher and student work together to learn comprehension strategies

Examples of reciprocal teaching

summarizing, clarifying, talk about the content, contextualize, think aloud about their own understanding

Language Arts instruction time

2.5 hrs per day

Universal access

providing differentiated instruction

Mathew Effect

students who read more get better and vice versa

2 parts of Structural Analysis

syllabication and roots/prefixes/suffixes

Four Cueing Systems

phonological, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic

The writing process (5)

prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, publishing

The Reading Process (5)

prereading, reading, responding, exploring, applying

Prereading Strategies

Anticipation guide, reading logs, quickwrites, story maps, DRTA

Reading Strategies

Modeled, shared, guided, interactive, independent, buddy reading

Balanced Literacy (4 components)

reading aloud, independent reading, shared reading, guided reading

Interactive Writing

teacher and students do the writing together

Responding Strategies

reading logs, quickwrites, grand conversations, minilessons

Exploring Strategies

story boards, word walls, story maps, word sorts

Applying Strategies

extending, projects, readers theater, reading other books on the same topic

Question & Answer Relationships (4)

right there, think and search, on my own, author and me

Author and me

inferential thinking

On my own

personal connection. what do you think?

Key Phrases: Domain 1 Planning

differentiated instruction, systematic, explicit instruction, direct instruction, grouping, assessment

Key Phrases: Domain 2 Word Analysis & Phonics

Assess-plan-teach-differentiate-evaluate, phonemic awareness predicts success in reading (Adams), identify-practice-manipulate phonemes, structural analysis, assessments (Yopp Singer)

Key Phrases: Domain 3 Fluency

a bridge between word identification and comprehension, teacher as a model,

Key Phrases: Domain 4 Vocabulary

matthew effect, taught in direct instruction and independent reading, tier 1 2 3 words, context cues

Key Phrases: Domain 5 Comprehension

listening comprehension, strategies to help before, during, after reading, text structure

3 Elements of fluency

rate, accuracy and prosody

Assessments used in Planning

Running records, Dolch List (high frequency words), retellings, cloze

Strategies: Planning

Differentiated instruction, universal access, Gradual Release, ELL instruction

Strategies: Word Analysis (Phonics)

Phoneme Isolation games, Elkonin Boxes, onset/rime games, rhyming games, poems, blending, segmenting

Assessments: Word Analysis

Yopp Singer phoneme segmentation test, creating words

Strategies: Fluency

repeated reading, modeling, whisper reading, read aloud, shared reading

Assessments: Fluency

running record, timed reading

Strategies: Vocabulary

possible sentences, word maps, word hunt

Assessments: Vocabulary

word sort

Strategies: Comprehension

anticipation guide, concept map, think pair share, DRTA, summaries (comp)

Assessments: Comprehension

retelling, summaries, learning logs

Types of Assessments in planning

1. entry level
2. monitoring (used for our ESA)
3. Summative

Phonemic awareness predicts

success in reading (adams)

analytic phonics

look at the whole word to find phonetic or orthographic patterns, then splitting them into smaller parts to help decode

synthetic phonics

teaching sounds (phonemes) then blending them together to say words

Type of phonics NOT teaching syllables or onset & rime

synthetic phonics

Step 1: Assess

using entry level, monitoring, progress, summative

Step 2: Plan

select strategies and materials based on student need

Step 3: Teach

modeling, guided instruction, teach reading decodable text, writing

Step 4: Differentiate

change lesson to meet student needs

Step 5: Evaluate

assess how well this succeeded

Tier 1 words

basic words that dont need instruction

Tier 2 words

words found across all disciplines

Tier 3 words

limited to a specific content area

Examples of Tier 1 words

boy, girl, baby, dog, clock

Examples of Tier 2 words

analyze, compare, contrast

Examples of Tier 3 words

isotope, peninsula, settlement

Stage 1: Emergent Spelling

letters on the page, some sound/letter matches, scribbling

Stage 2: Letter-Name Spelling

use letters to represent sound, omit important letters (low level)

Stage 3: Within-Word Spelling

select letters on basis of sound, readable, second grade

Stage 4: Syllables and Affixes Spelling

include vowels, syllabication, inflectional endings

Stage 5: Derivational Relations Spelling

learned basic spelling, teach root words

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