61 terms

Biology chapter 1

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Emergent properties
With each step upward in biological order, properties emerge that were not present at simpler levels. Ex. Head Injury and Chloroplast
How do genes control protein production (RNA)
Genes control protein production indirectly, using a related molecule called RNA as an intermediary. The sequence of nucleotides along a gene is transcribed into RNA which in then translated into a specific protein with a unique shape and function.
Gene Expression
The entire production process by which information in a gene directs the manufacture of a cellular product.
In translating genes into proteins all forms of life employ essentially the same genetic code
A particular sequence of nucleotides says the same thing in one organism as it does in another.
What do differences in organisms reflect?
Differences between organisms reflect differences between their nucleotide sequences rather than between their genetic code
Genome
The entire library of genetic instructions that an organism inherits
Life requires the transfer and transformation of energy and matter
Moving, growing, reproducing, and the various cellular activities of life are work and work requires energy. Input of energy, primarily from the sun. from one form to another make life possible.
Example Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll molecules within plants leaves convert the energy of sunlight to the chemical energy of food, the sugars produced during photosynthesis. The chemical energy in sugar is then passed along by plants and other photosythetic organisms (producers) to consumers. Consumers are organism such as animals that feed on producers and other consumers.
Organisms using chemical energy
When an organism uses chemical energy to perform work, some of that energy is converted to thermal energy and is dissipated to the surroundings as heart. As a result, energy flows through an ecosystem usually entering as light and exiting as heat.
Chemical elements recycled
Chemical elements are recycled within an ecosystem. Chemicals that a plant absorbs from the air or soil may be incorporated into the plants body then passed to an animal that eats the plant.
Organisms interact with other organisms and the physical environment
Each organism interacts continuously with physical factors in its environment.
Example leaves of a tree
Leaves of a tree absorb light from the sun, take in carbon dioxide from the air, and release oxygen to the air.
Example Environment is affected by organisms living there
Environment it affected by the organisms living there. a plant takes up water and minerals from the soil through its roots, and its roots break up rocks, thereby contributing to the formation of soil.
Evolution
Evolution makes sense of everything we know about living organisms. Life has been evolving on earth for billions of years resulting in a vast diversity of past and present organisms. The scientific explanation for unity and diversity as well as for the adaptation of organisms to their environments.
Evolution Continued
The idea that the organisms living on earth today are the modified descendants of common ancestors. We can explain traits shared by two organisms with the idea that they have descended from a common ancestor and we can account for differences with the idea that heritable changed have occurred along the way.
For each biological level write a sentence that includes components from the previous (lower) level of biological organization
-A molecule consists of atoms bounded together
-Each organelle has an orderly arrangement of molecules
- Photosynthetic plant cells contain organelles called chloroplasts
-A tissue consists of a group of similar cells
-Organs such as the heart are constructed from several tissues
-A complex multicellular organism such as a plant, has several types of organs such as leaves and roots
-A population is a set of organisms of the same species
-A community consists of populations of the various species inhabiting a specific area
-An ecosystem consists of a biological community along with the nonliving factors important to life such as air, soil, and water
-The biosphere is made up of all darts ecosystems.
Identify the theme exemplified by the sharp spines of a porcupine
Organization structure and function are correlated
Identify the theme exemplified by The cloning of a plant from a single cell
Organization: The cell is an organisms basic unit of structure and function and information. Lifes processes involve the expression and transmission of genetic information
Identify the theme exemplified by a hummingbird using sugar to power its flight
Energy and Matter: Life requires transfer and transformation of energy and interactions.
Organization
The ability of a human heart to pump blood requires an intact heart it is not a capability of any of the hearts tissues or cells working alone.
Information
Human eye color is determined by the combination of genes inherited from the two parents.
Energy and Matter
A plant such as a grass absorbs energy from the sun and transforms it into molecules that act as stored fuel. Animals can eat parts of the plant and use the food for energy to carry out their activities.
Interactions
A mouse eats food such as nuts or grasses and deposits some of the food material as feces and urine. construction of a nest rearranges the physical environment and may hasten degradation of some of its components. the mouse may also act as food for a predator
Evolution
All plants have chloroplasts indicating their decent from a common ancestor.
Classifying the diversity of life
Humans have a tendency to group diverse items according to their similarities and relationships to each other. Biologists use comparisons of form and function to classify life forms into a hierarchy of increasingly inclusive groups.
Prokaryotic domains
Domain bacteria and domain archaea
Eukaryotes domains
Plante, fungi, animalia. These three kingdoms are distinguished partly by their modes of nutrition
Domain Bacteria
Prokaryotic. Bacteria are the most diverse and widespread prokaryotes and are no classified into multiple kingdoms. Each rodshaped structure is a bacterial cell. Prokaryotic cells, single celled (unicellular), Pathogenic and/or beneficial
Domain Archaea
Some of the prokaryotes known as archaea live in earths extreme environments such as salty lakes and boiling hot springs. Prokaryotic cell, unicellular, extremophiles (live in extreme environments)
Domain Eukarya
Humans, eukaryotic cells, unicellular-fungi, yeast
multicellular- plants, animals, protists.
Kingdom Plantae
Consists of terrestrial multicellular eukaryotes (land plants) that carry out photosynthesis, the conversion of light energy to the chemical energy in food. Produce their own sugars and other food molecules by photosynthesis
Kingdom Fungi
Is defined in part by the nutritional mode of its members such as mushrooms which absorb nutrients from outside of their bodies. Absorb dissolved nutrients from their surroundings.
Kingdom Animalia
Consists of multicellular eukaryotes that ingest other organisms. Animals obtain food by eating and digesting other organisms.
Protists
Are mostly unicellular eukaryotes and some relatively simple multicellular relatives.
Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural
The origin of species by the means of natural selection
First main point: species have arisen from a succession of ancestors that differed from them
Darwin called this process "descent with modification" Captured the duality of lifes unity and diversity. unity in the kinship among species that descended from common ancestors, diversity in the modifications that evolved as species branched from their common ancestors.
Second main point: Natural selection is a mechanism for descent with modification
He started the following three observations from nature
1. Individuals in a population vary in their traits, many of which seem to be heritable passes on from parents to offspring.
2. A population can produce far more offspring than can survive to produce offspring of their own therefor competition is inevitable.
3. Species generally are suited to their environments.
Darwins findings
Darwin inferred that individuals with inherited traits that are better suited to the local environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than are less well suited individuals. As a result over many generations a higher and higher proportion of individuals in a population will have advantageous traits.
Natural Selection
Darwin called this mechanism of evolutionary adaptation natural selection because the natural environment selects for the propagation of certain traits among naturally occurring variant traits in the population
Natural selection example of beetles
1) population with varied inherited traits(some black some white)
2)Elimination of individuals with certain traits (the white ones you can see really well are eaten)
3) Reproduction of survivors (black beetles)
4) Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success
Taxonomy
A branch of biology that names and classifies species, ordering of organisms into increasing breadth
How is a mailing address analogous to biologys hierarchal classification system
An address pinpoints a location by tracking from broader to narrower categories-a state, city, zip, street, building number. This is analogous to the groups subordinate to groups structure of a biological taxonomy
Explain why editing is an appropriate metaphor for how natural selection acts on a populations heritable variation
The naturally occurring heritable variation in a population is edited by natural selection because individuals with heritable traits are better suited to the environment survive and reproduce more successfully than others. Over time better suited individuals persist and their percentages in a population increase.
Cells
Fundamental unit of life, lowest level of structure capable of performing all the activities of life.
Robert Hooke
Cork cells
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Made own microscope, first to detail single cell organisms bacteria and protozoa, first to see red blood cells and human sperm
Schleiden & Schwann
Came up with the cell theory
cell theory- all organisms are made up of cells and all cells come from preexisting cells
Louis Pasteur
Vaccinations, disease, the end of spontaneous generation
Science
"to know" a way of knowing an approach to understanding the natural world. It is developed out of our human curiosity about ourselves, other life forms, out plant, and universe.
Inquiry
A search for information and explanations of natural phenomena. Scientists use a process of inquiry that includes making observations, forming logical hypotheses, and testing them.
Observations
The use of the senses to gather information either directly or indirectly such as with the help of microscopes or other tools that extend our senses.
Data
Recorded observations. Data are items of information on which scientific inquiry are based. Some data is qualitative and some is quantitative
Inductive Reasoning
Collecting and analyzing observations can lead to important conclusions based on a type of logic called inductive reasoning.
Hypothesis
A tentative answer to a well framed question. It is an explanation on trial. A scientific hypothesis leads to predictions that can be tested by making additional observations.
Contrast inductive reasoning with deductive reasoning
Inductive reasoning derives generalizations from specific cases, deductive reasoning predicts specific outcomes from general premises.
Why is natural selection called a theory rather than a hypothesis?
A scientific theory is usually more general than a hypothesis and substantiated by a much greater amount of evidence. Natural selection is an explanatory idea that applies to all kinds of organisms and is supported by vast amounts of evidence of various kinds.
All organisms on your campus make up?
A community
What demonstrated the unity among all organisms?
The structure and function of DNA
A controlled experiment is one that ?
Tests experimental and control groups in parallel
What best distinguishes hypothesis from theories in science?
Hypotheses usually are narrow in scope and theories have broad explanatory power.
What are the properties of life
Cells, energy, information, replication, evolution