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Chapter 27 World War II Vocabulary
Terms in this set (176)
book written by George Orwell, announced an insane world of dehumanization through terror in which the individual was systematically obliterated by an all-power elite; key phrases: Big Brother, doublethink, Newspeak, the Ministry of Peace...Truth...Love
France, Britain, USSR, United States, and China as well as 45 other countries that opposed the Axis powers in World War II
attach; add to a large thing; take possession of; incorporate (territory) into a larger existing political unit (by force); N: building added to a large one
The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938.
policies, views, or actions that harm or discriminate against Jews
practice of giving in to aggression in order to avoid war
People who share the Arabic language, and who live mainly in the middle east and northern Africa. Arabs are largely but not exclusively Muslim, with about five percent of Arabs worldwide adhering to Christianity or other religions.
Indo-European speaking nomads who entered India from the Central Asian steppes between 1500 and 1000 BC and greatly affected Indian society.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
Turkish nationalist leader who became the first president of modern Turkey in the 1920's and set about to modernize and Westernize Turkey, including making it more secular
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
Bomb that changed the world, ended WWII in Japan, created a nuclear arms race between U.S. and Soviet Union, a nuclear weapon in which enormous energy is released by nuclear fission (splitting the nuclei of a heavy element like uranium 235 or plutonium 239)
was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated in occupied Poland by Nazi Germany during the Second World War. It was the largest of the German concentration camps, consisting of Auschwitz I (the Stammlager or main camp); Auschwitz II-Birkenau (the Vernichtungslager or extermination camp); Auschwitz III-Monowitz, also known as Buna-Monowitz (a labor camp); and 45 satellite camps.
Auschwitz is the German name for Oświęcim, the town the camps were located in and around; it was renamed by the Germans after they invaded Poland in September 1939. Birkenau, the German translation of Brzezinka (birch tree), refers to a small Polish village nearby that was mostly destroyed by the Germans to make way for the camp.
Auschwitz II-Birkenau was designated by Heinrich Himmler, Germany's Minister of the Interior, as the locus of the "final solution of the Jewish question in Europe." From spring 1942 until the fall of 1944, transport trains delivered Jews to the camp's gas chambers from all over Nazi-occupied Europe. The camp's first commandant, Rudolf Höss, testified after the war at the Nuremberg Trials that up to three million people had died there (2.5 million exterminated, and 500,000 from disease and starvation), a figure since revised to 1.1 million, around 90 percent of them Jews. Others deported to Auschwitz included 150,000 Poles, 23,000 Roma and Sinti, 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war, and tens of thousands of people of diverse nationalities. Those not killed in the gas chambers died of starvation, forced labor, lack of disease control, individual executions, and medical experiments. Denis Avey, recently named a British Holocaust hero by the government of Britain, had escaped and spoke of conditions inside the camps.
On January 27, 1945, Auschwitz was liberated by Soviet troops, a day commemorated around the world as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. In 1947, Poland founded a museum on the site of Auschwitz I and II, which by 1994 had seen 22 million visitors—700,000 annually—pass through the iron gates crowned with the infamous motto, Arbeit macht frei ("work makes you free").
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
an expressway in a German-speaking country
self-government, political control
in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.
(1561-1626) English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning.
Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia, three countries that border the Baltic Sea.
Battle of Britain (Blitz)
the prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it
Battle of Dunkirk
June 1940 French troops surrounded by German troops/Luffewaffe Retreating, 300,000 navy and civilian british ships rescued French soldiers
Battle of Guadalcanal
(1942-1943) World War II battle in the Pacific; it represented the first Allied counter-attack against Japanese forces; Allied victory forced Japanese forces to abandon the island
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
term used by conservatives to describe gov't programs in areas they don't think gov't should be involved in
allies during WWII; Soviet Union - Stalin, United Kingdom - Churchill, United States - Roosevelt
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939
Leon Blum, who began as a literary critic, became active in politics as a result of the Dreyfuss Affair. In 1919, he was elected to the French Chamber of Deputies. In 1925, he became the head of the Socialist Party and, in May 1936, he became France's first socialist Prime Minister since 1870. During his one year in office, he instituted a number of important social reforms, including the 40-hour work week. He used the Popular Front very successfully and it was used the workers and lower middle class. Revolutions by conservatives and inflation ruined the Popular Front and because of this Blum was forced to resign in June 1937.
a group's refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies
A minor movie star in the 1930s, Eva Braun became Hitler's mistress and married him the day before they committed suicide in the underground bunker at the end of WWII.
a mountainous republic in southeastern Asia on the Bay of Bengal
a readily salable crop that is grown and gathered for the market (as vegetables or cotton or tobacco)
Center of Jubeobolshevism
Stereotype idea that Jews were resposible for the recent rise of communism in nations across Europe
Central Economic Planning
government determination of the objectives of the economy and how resources will be directed to obtain those goals
A government in which power is concentrated in a central authority to which local governments are subject
Chamber of Deputies
Within the French bicameral legislature, the lower house, or the Chamber of Deputies, was elected according to a very narrow franchise with a high property qualification.
British statesman who as Prime Minister pursued a policy of appeasement toward fascist Germany (1869-1940)
a funny Englishman working in Hollywood that was unquestionably the king of the "silver screen" in the 1920's. He symbolized the "gay spirit of laughter in a cruel and crazy world." He also demonstrated that in the hands of a genius, the new medium could combine mass entertainment and artistic accomplishment, English comedian and film maker
a concentration camp, was established Dec 1941 the first commadant was Herbert Lange. The camp consisted of 2 parts: administration section, barracks for storage for plundered goods, and burial and cremation site. It operated 3 gas vans using carbon monoxide. The estimated number of deaths is 150-300,000
British statesman and leader during World War II, A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
a group's refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral (as in protest against discrimination)
Dadist filmmaker, directed Entr'acte 1924 , sequences make no sense , random play, lack of narrative strikes against bourgeois society, funeral chase scene
government owned farms, workers were paid by government and they shared profits from products
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
A Russian artist that follows the soviets demands for propaganda in art
a penal camp where political prisoners or prisoners of war are confined (usually under harsh conditions)
forced military service
a concentration camp for Jews created by the Nazis near Munich in southern Germany, A concentration camp in Germany. It was the model for all camps that followed it.
French Prime Minister who went to the Munich Conference., French leader of the radical socialists; accepted Hitler's terms for peace.
Planned June 5th June 6 1944 Germans occupied Normandy France Germans though it would occur at Calais and goal was to liberate Paris, allied forces under dwight d. eisenhower landed on the beaches of normandy in history's greatest naval invasion.
Charles De Gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
A leader who exploits popular prejudices and false claims and promises in order to gain power
a zone from which military forces or operations or installations are prohibited
German general Ewin Rommel, German field marshal noted for brilliant generalship in North Africa during World War II (1891-1944)
(1892-1934) this Christian socialist became chancellor of Austria. He tried to steer a course between the Austrian Social democrats and the German Nazis, who had surfaced in Austria. In 1934 he outlawed all political parties except the Christian socialists, the agrarians, and the paramilitary groups, which composed his own
German city ferociously firebombed by the Allies from February 13 to 15, 1945
United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany, 34th U.S. President. 1953-1961. Republican
an order forbidding the trade in or movement of commercial goods; any restraint or hindrance; to forbid to enter or leave port; to forbid trade with
enabled Hitler to get rid of the Reichstag parliament and pass laws without reference to parliament
African nation invaded by fascist Italy in 1935
Europe First Strategy
they persued this because they believed that Germany posed a more serious threat than Japan did; the strategy they used to beat Hitler
an accomplished and presumably irreversible deed, fact, or action
Fascist party in Spain; fought and won Spanish Civil War with Nazi aid
a state-set percentage of an estate that is given to the immediate family (of the spouse) even if the will gives them less. Also known as a widow's allowance.
A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.
32nd President of the United States, Roosevelt, the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. Served from 1933 to 1945, he was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms
final solution of the Jewish question-murder of every single Jew-had begun-mass arresting, and trafficking of Jews to the concentration camps-mass killings occurred as well in the gas chambers
informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people, The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression.
The 1st German Empire commonly referred to as the "Holy Roman Empire". It lasted nearly 1,000 years.
Five Year Plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state.
an island in southeastern Asia 100 miles off the coast of mainland China in the South China Sea
Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in 1939 and who ruled as a dictator until his death (1892-1975)
a French movement during World War II that was organized in London by Charles de Gaulle to fight for the liberation of France from German control and for the restoration of the republic
Adolf Hitler's title as chancellor and head of state in Germany.
political and spiritual leader during India's struggle with Great Britain for home rule
the secret police force of the German nazi state, notorious for its terrorism and brutality
a poor densely populated city district occupied by a minority ethnic group linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions
United States mathematician (born in Austria) who is remembered principally for demonstrating the limitations of axiomatic systems (1906-1978)
German politician in Nazi Germany who founded the Gestapo and mobilized Germany for war (1893-1946)
In 1932, General Gyula Gombos came to power as prime Minister of Hungary, an office he used as a dictatorship. He was not a strong enough ruler to initiate a truly fascist state, but he was quite powerful, and quite conservative, as well as being openly anti-Semitic. Gombos set the tone for a string of conservative prime ministers who practiced open anti-Semitism, and eventually cooperated with Germany in its efforts at European domination.
Grand Alliance of Great Britain
the alliance between the United Kingdom, United States, and the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany during World War II
fell to the Japanese early in the war, Pacific island that was acquired by the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War
a Spanish town that was brutally bombed and was full of innocent civilians it was supposed to encourage fear, Picasso painted a famous painting capturing Guernica
System of Siberian prison camps and penal colonies set up during Stalin's dictatorship
A German physicist that speculated that there was no real certainty in where an electron was, and only tendencies. This broke down Newton's dependable laws to only probabilities.
German Nazi who was chief of the SS and the Gestapo and who oversaw the genocide of six million Jews (1900-1945)
emperor of Japan who renounced his divinity and became a constitutional monarch after Japan surrendered at the end of World War II (1901-1989)
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
System set up by Nazi government to provide low-cost housing for German citizens
Germany's young men and women who joined the Nazi political party and pledged their allegiance to Germany and Adolf Hitler. The Hitler Youth organization "brainwashed" the children and convinced them of German superiority.
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
United States astronomer who discovered that (as the universe expands) the speed with which nebulae recede increases with their distance (1889-1953)
Had his own party called the German Nationalist Party, was also a part of Hitler's NSDAP. He wanted to control Hitler and use him to his benefits, but failed in doing so.
The French colony in Vietnam. French influence was greater in the south as they were able to westernize the culture. The much more populated north was resistant to French authority, and they rebelled while being led by Ho Chi Minh.
Detention centers where more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were relocated during World War II by order of the President.
WWII strategy of conquering only certain Pacific islands that were important to the Allied advance toward Japan
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships.
in the Soviet Union, a small farm worked by farmers who shared in the farm's production and profits
(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews.
Prosperous Russian Peasents that - under Stalin - were sent to Labor Camps as punishment for being succesful
A prison camp where the prisoners were used to slave labor for German industry and the production of war materiel.
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people
the German air force before and during World War II
Prime Minister, leader of labour party of Britain, made Moderate Reforms for workers, healthcare, retirement, welfare programs
Country conquered by the British in the 1870s and 1880s that offered ports that enabled the British navy to control sea lanes linking the Indian Ocean with the South China Sea. This country also provided abundant supplies of tin and rubber.
Province in northeast China invaded by Japan in September 1931.
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
(June 6, 1875 - August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual. His analysis and critique of the European and German soul use modernized German and Biblical stories, as well as the ideas of Goethe, Nietzsche, and Schopenhauer.
the French underground that fought against the German occupation in World War II
'My Struggle' by hitler, later became the basic book of nazi goals and ideology, reflected obsession
a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests
a production device that allows a gradual change in a relationship or a lengthy time passage to occur in a very short amount of screen time by showing a series of silent shots accompanied by music.
Signed in 1938 between Great Britain, Gemany, and France that gave part of Czechoslovakia to Germany; Chamberlain said it guaranteed "peace in our time"
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).
The doctrines of nationalism, racial purity, anti-Communism, and the all-powerful role of the State. The National Socialist German Workers Party, otherwise known as the Nazi Party. Nazism was advocated by Adolf Hitler in Germany.
Hitler and Joseph Stalin agreed not to attack each other but divided Poland for an easy win, but Germany didn't keep true to their word and attacked Stalin later
the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented
Night of the Long Knives
June, 30, 1934. On this night, Hitler sent his elite guards (Schutzstaffel/ SS/ black shirts) to kill the Storm Troopers, led by Ernst Röhm, and other non-Nazi political opponents.
Beach in France Allies Invaded,Codenamed Operation Overlord, it was the long awaited Allied invasion of France and the opening of the Second Front during World War II. The initial invasion began on June 6, 1944.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party, the full title of the Nazi Party. The party grew rapidly in support from 1928 onwards, to become the most popular political party in Germany at the time when Hitler came to power.
Laws created by Hitler that defined "jewish", deprived jews of citizenship, and established laws against jews that caused many jews to lose their jobs, and said a jew couldn't marry a german or hire a german. Any jew who broke those laws would be given hard labor or imprisonment
denoting or characteristic of countries of Europe and the Western Hemisphere
a large group of islands in the south Pacific including Melanesia and Micronesia and Polynesia (and sometimes Australasia and the Malay Archipelago)
imaginative British writer concerned with social justice (1903-1950), author of animal farm, Nineteen Eighty Four
a former East German monetary unit
Pact of Steel
May 1939 - Italy and Germany; turned the Rome-Beline axis into a full scale military and political alliance, an aggressive agreement
Region in southwestern Asia that became the ancient home of the jews; the ancient Roman name for Judea;
a nationalist movement built on the shared heritage of Arabs who lived in the lands from the Arabian peninsula from North Africa
members of party, faction, or cause
A situation where there is prolonged lasting war
Henri Philippe Petain
head of the Vichy government, the puppet government set up by Hitler. In turn, members of the Vichy military—actual Frenchmen—fought against the allies.
a Spanish artist, founder of Cubism, which focused on geometric shapes and overlapping planes, prolific and influential Spanish artist who lived in France (1881-1973)
Pope Pius XI
• Condemned communism and negotiated a concordat with Adolf Hitler
• Courageously dared to challenge Hitler when many popes were silent
left-wing coalition government formed by several french political parties in the late 1930's.
information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.
the use of psychological tactics to destroy the opponents' morale
introducing water into a pump to improve the seal and start the water flowing
What Stalin ordered all who opposed him to be killed or put in prison and during the rule of Stalin millions were killed
Racial coding with bodily traits justify inferiority (Conquerors)
Rape of Nanjing
Japanese attack on Chinese capital from 1937-1938 when Japanese aggressorts slaughtered 100,000 civilians and raped thousands of women in order to gain control of China
Taking items that are in short supply and distributing them according to a system. For instance, during World War II, gas, sugar, and butter were a few of the items rationed in the United States.
Seated Germany's lower house of Parlimrent, it burned in 1933 and Hitler blamed it on the communist, this event led to Hitler becoming the absolute dictator in Germany.
Region between Germany and France demilitarized by Treaty of Versailles; Hitler occupied and fortified the region
"Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.
passive resistance campaign of Mohandas Gandhi where many Indians protested the British tax on salt by marching to the sea to make their own salt.
special police force in Nazi Germany founded as a personal bodyguard for Adolf Hitler in 1925
the name of the reign that started with Kaiser Wilheilm and Otto von Bismark
a trial staged for the benefit of the media. These trials were to justify the purges, Old bolsheviks confessed to crimes against the soviet union; Shown to the world- showed Stalin was right
The extreme northeastern sector of Asia, including the Kamchatka Peninsula and the present Russian coast of the Arctic Ocean, the Bering Strait, and the Sea of Okhotsk.
Artistic style whose goal was to promote socialism by showing Soviet life in a positive light.
Social Security Act of 1935
the greatest victory for New Dealers; created pension and insurance for the old-aged, the blind, the physically handicapped, delinquent children, and other dependents by taxing employees and employers
Council of workers and soldiers set up by Russian revolutionaries in 1917
Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Nazis' private army used by Hitler to terrorize communists, Socialists, and trade union workers, especially the Jews
Land that Germany thought was rightfully theirs due to the large German speaking population, an area in western Czechoslovakia that was coveted by Hitler
the official emblem of the Nazi Party and the Third Reich
(Judaism) the place of worship for a Jewish congregation
program to eliminate disabled and elderly. Taking up too many resourses
The Third Republic of Germany which began Hitler's rule in 1933 and ended with his defeat in 1945
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Created by Lenin in 1922.
(used of opinions and actions) far beyond the norm
Union of Soviet Writers
the first creative union organized by the Communist Party to solidify its influence on the arts. The Party leadership considered literature and other arts to be potent weapons which could work for or against them. For almost sixty years, the Union employed a mixture of enticements to mobilize writers behind the Party's agenda, and punishments to discipline those believed to have transgressed
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered
Southern Pro-Nazi French; govern themselves as loyal to Nazis; traitors to the Free French in N. France
"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945
The folk community. The Nazi slogan expressing the desire to create a classless, unified German society.
Swedish diplomat who rescued Hungarian Jews by giving them Swedish passports
English author whose work used such techniques as stream of consciousness and the interior monologue
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
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