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Chapter 14 Earth Science
Terms in this set (84)
what are ocean currents?
a movement of ocean water that follows a regular pattern
what are ocean currents influenced by?
weather, earths rotation, and position of continents.
what are surface currents?
Horizontal, stream like movements of ocean water, that is caused by wind, and that occurs at or near the ocean's surface.
what is one of the largest surface currents?
the Gulf Stream
what are surface currents influenced by?
Global Winds, Coriolis Effect, continetnal deflections
what are global winds?
as winds blow across Earths surface, they create surface currents in the ocean
Equator winds blow-
poles winds blow-
east to west
wesr to east
what is the Coriolis Effect?
earth's rotation causes winds and surface currents to move in curved paths instread of straight lines
what are continental deflections?
when surface currents meet continents, the current deflects around continent.
where do warm water currents begina nd where do cold water currents begin?
what are deep currents?
streamlike movements of ocean water far below the earths surface
where do deep currents form?
in parts of ocean where water density increases
decreasing temp/increasing salinity=
raising temp/decreasing salinity=
density is affected by _____ ans _____
at the poles, cold air cools surface water, causing particles to get closer together, thus decreasing the volume and raising the density. Dense water sinks and travels towards equator as a deep current along ocean floor.
increasing salinity through freezing=
Through Freezing- ice floats on top because it is less dense than liquid water. Dissolved solids are squeezed out of the ice and enter the liquid water, increasing the salinity and density. Dense water sinks to ocean floor and becomes a Deep Current
increasing salinity through Evaporation=
as ocean water changes from liquid to gas, it leaves behind solids, increasing salinity and density, which causes water to sink and become a Deep Current. Tend to occur in warmer climates.
_____ dense water flows on top of ____ dense water
surface currents carry the warmer, less dense water to _____ _____
warm water cools and becomes ____ dense and ____
Deep currents carry ___ water towards the equator
Deep current water ____ to replace water leaving surface due to surface currents.
highest point of a wave,
lowest point of a wave,
the distance between 2 adjacent creast and throughs,
the verticel distance between a wave crest and trough.
waves form when....
winds blows across water surface and transfers energy to the water
water moves in a _____ motion as energy moves through it
when water cannot complete a full circle, because of water depth ____ ____
what is the wave period?
the time between the passage of 2 crests or troughs at a fixed point
wave speed =
wave length/ wave period
increase in ____ ____ decreases ____ ____.
waves usually from from wind but can form by other mechanisms like ______, landslides, cosmic body imopacts.
As DWW become SWW the water particles ___ down and biuld up, forcing more water bewteen crests and ____ height.
what are breakers?
gravity pulls high wave crests down casing the waves to crash
what is the breaker zone?
area where waves first begin to tumble downward or break.
what is the surf?
area between breaker zone and shore.
what is the undertow?
water from waves crashing on beach flows back to the ocean underneath incoming waves carrying sand, rock and plankton away from shore.
What is a longshore current?
a water current that moves parallel to the shoreline. Responsible for tearing up and building up shoreline.
what are the two types of open ocean waves?
white cape and swells
what are white caps?
white, foaming waves with very steep crests that break in open ocean, long beofre near shore?
if you are in an area where there are white caps, what does that mean?
that there is a storm coming ahead and there is high winds
what are swells?
rolling waves that move steadily acroos open ocean. have larger wavelength
tsunamis are ___ that form when a large volume of water is sunnenly moved ___ or ____.
what are tsunamis caused by?
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, underwater explosions, meteorite/comet impacts
where do tsunamis usually occur?
in/around the pacific becuase of frequent earthquake acitivty due to Ring of Fire.
what are storm surges?
local rises in sea level near shore casued by strong winds (hurricanes)
what happens during a storm surge?
Winds blow water in a pile due to circulation as the storm moves onto shore, and pile of water moves with the storm onto shore causing lots of flooding
what is the most destrutive part of a hurricane>
what are tides?
daily changes in ocean water level that are influenced by the sun adn the moons positions
tides times change daily due to the ___ cycle around the ____
tides were studied by ___ and ____
pytheus and issac Newton
what is particle motion?
gravity caused by the moon, pulls on every particle that makes up earth
the pull on ___ is much more noticeable than in ____.
___ molecules flow more freely than ____.
true or false: high tide is when the ocean is not directly facing toward the moon
false: it is directly facing towards the moon
what is high tide?
When part of the ocean is directly facing the moon, water then bulges towards the moon. The water on the opposite side bulges as well because of rotation.
what is low tide>
when high tides occur, water is drawn away from the area between the high tides, creating a lower water level.
tides occur at different times each day becuase the ___ rotates more quickly than the ____ relvolves around the earth
what is the difference between levels of high and low tide?
when does spring tide occur>
during new and full moon's
what occur more spring or neap tides
true or false: during a speong tide the sun earth and moon are aligned
when does a neap tide occur>
the 1sta dn 3rd quarter of moon phases
true or false; during a neap tide, the earth sun and moon are at 90 degree angle
what is an example of a tidal bore?
Bay of Fundy
what is a tidal bore?
when a body of water that rushes into a narrow bay and causes a very sudden tidal rise
true or false; surface currents warm or cool costal areas, year around
changes in normal circulation patterns cause changes in _____ that affect climate in many parts of the world
what do warm-water currenst do?
creates warmer climates in coastal areas
the gulf stream carries ___ water from near the _____ to british isles, ___ the climate in comparison to other localities at the same latitude
what do cold water currents do>
keeps climate of coastal areas cooler
____ current keeps western coast of ____ cooler than western inland area
what is upwelling>
Process in which cold, nutrient rich water from the deep ocean rises to the surface and replaces warm surface water that is being blown out by local winds.
why is upwelling improtant?
becasue it brings nutrients to the surface allowing plankton to grow, causing fish to war, enhancing the food chain
when does el nino occur> and how long does it usually last>
____ _____ trade winds move ___ warm water to weatern pacific than usual, causing ____ ___ coastal water to ___ in temp
true or false: changes in interaction of ocean adn atmosphere, doesnt change global weather patterns
false: it does change global weather patterns
what are affects of el niño
altered weater patterns casue flooding, mudslides in areas where there is normally little rainm and drought conditions in areas used to rain.
what is another affect of el niño?
No cool nutrient rich water prevents anchovies from coming to surface, lessening profit of fishing economy, and lessens the profit of those who work for the fertilizer industry (sea gull gauno that gathers due to gulls eating anchovies)
what does NOAA stand for?
national oceanic atmospheric administration
what are the 4 main things the NOAA bouys record
direction and stregth of currents
direction and strength of wind
NOAA buoys are constantly monitoring conditions to dteremine if ___ _____ is about to occur
true or false: la niña is the opposite of el niño
what is la niña?
Periodic changes in Eastern Pacific Ocean, where surface water temperature become very cool. More dry in normally dry areas, more wet in normally wet areas.
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