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a useful, but unprovable, cognitive shortcut, such as a "rule of thumb"

Hierarchy of needs

Maslow's theory of the most important motivations people have

Hindsight bias

the tendency, after an event occurs, to overestimate the likelihood that an event could have been predicted


limbic system component associated with memory


the steady, stable state that is the body's regulatory processes try to maintain


chemical substance secreted by endocrine glands that affect body processes


perspective in psychology that stresses the goodness of people and their possibility of reaching their fullest potential


it is regulated by the lateral hypothalamus and the ventromedial hypothalamus


a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain events or emotions will occur


a disorder characterized by an unreasonable fear that one has a serious disease


limbic system component that regulates hunger, body temperature and other functions


a prediction of how the an experiment will turn out


term that describes the memory of images


in Freud's conception, the repository of the basic urges toward sex and aggression

Identity vs. role confusion

Erikson's stage during which teenagers and young adults search for and become their true selves


evidence of critical period in some animals; they follow the first moving thing they see after hatching

In-group bias

tendency to favour one's own group over other groups


an external stimulus that tends to encourage behaviour


type of variable manipulated by the experimenter


culture in which the individual is valued more highly than the group

Industry vs. inferiority

Erikson's stage between 6 and 11 years, when the child learns to be productive

Inferiority complex

Adler's conception of a basic feeling of inadequacy stemming from childhood experiences

Information processing

humans accomplish this either in parallel (unconsciously) or in serial fashion (consciously)

Informed consent

agreement to participate in psychology research, after being appraised of the dangers and benefits of the research

Initiative vs. guilt

Erikson's third stage in which the child finds independence in planning, playing, and other activities


a legal term describing one's inability to be responsible for one's action due to the condition of the mind

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