Chp 14 Plant molecular systematics

DNA and RNA characteristics for systematics
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Terms in this set (33)
How is gene mapping done?done via restriction site analysisrestriction enzymes cut DNA at specific sites of knownnucleotide sequences of 6-8 base pairs in lengthMost initial molecular systematic studies userestriction site analysisGene mapping helped resolve relationship betweengenera Clarkia and HeterogauraHeterogaura should not be considered a separate genus from the former, although floral & fruit chs might suggest otherwise True or FalseTrueFamily of Clarika and HeterogenaOnagraceaeGene mapping is most likely used today true or falseFalseGene sequencingprocess of determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes and genomesGene mappingthe process of determining the locus for a particular biological trait.Gene sequencing gives precise order of what?nucleotides: adenine, thymine, guanine, & cytosineMain obstacle with gene sequencing?get enough DNA a. via recombinant DNA b. now largely via PCRPCRpolymerase chain reactionWhat does PCR do?wdenatures DNA wbinds primers wtriggers DNA polymerase Some errors can occur wnucleotides attach wrenatures (anneals) DNA Now sequence the abundant DNANext-generation sequencing is rapidly outplacingSanger sequencingChases study (1993) attempeted to do whatconstruct phylogeny for all seed plantsMajor difference between angiosperms based on Chases (1993) study1 pollen aperture vs. 3 aperturesGenome rearrangementstructural rearrangement of chloroplast genomeRestriction sites used from genome rearrangmentgenomic markers 2.determine gene orderGenonme rearrangement is useful for what?hybridization, speciation studies.Shortcomings of Genome rearrangement?Subject to parallelisms & reversals E.g., adenine changes to guanine and then back to adenine 2.Genes mutate at diff. rates; phylogeny for 1 gene may differ from other genes 3.Hybridization or introgression can transfer DNA into a diff. lineage D. History for chloroplast vs. nuclear genome may differ.Molecular systematicsA scientific discipline that uses nucleic acids or other molecules in different species to infer evolutionary relationships.Sanger sequencingA procedure in which chemical termination of daughter strands help in determining the DNA sequence.Next generation sequencinggroup of automated techniques used for rapid DNA sequencing