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destruction of all forms of microbial life including spores


destruction of vegetative pathogens


destruction of vegetative pathogens on living tissues


lowering of microbial counts to meet public health standards


physical removal of microbes from skin


agent which kills microorganisms


inhibition of microbial growth


the absence of seriouse contamination

microbial death

permanent loss of reproductive capabilities

denaturation of enzymes and nucleic acids; alteration of membrane permeability.

The 2 Basic Mechanisms of physical and chemical control are the _____ & _____.

Thermal Death Point

lowest temperature at which all cells in a cultue are killed.

Thermal Death Time

Time during which all cells in a culture are killed

Decimal Reduction TIme

Time it takes to ill 90% of microorganisms in a culture

Moist Heat

Physical Control Method in which water helps break H bonds


Physical control method using water at 100 degrees


Examples of which physical control method: baby bottles, home canning


Physical control method using heat under pressure to raise temper of boiling


Examples of which physical control method: culture media, disposal of used plates, instruments, glassware


Physical control method using moist heat to control only pathogens


Examples of which physical control method: dairy products and juices


Physical control method which oxidizes microorganisms


Examples of which physical control method: flaming the loop, disposables, contaminated bodies and carcasses

Hot air oven

Flow of hot air over the load 170 degrees for about an hour depending on load size

Hot air oven

Examples of which physical control method: glassware, pipettes, canisters of ointment or powder


Physically and elctrostatically trapping microorganisms in or on a filter


Physical control method used to reduce numbers in liquids that are heat sensitive (sera, vaccines, vitamin solutions, toxins, beers)

low temperature

Slow metabolism down to prevent infiltration


removal of cellular water


Example of which physical control method: dried food (beef jerkey)


freeze drying

Osmotic Pressure

Use of sugar or salt to reduce cellular water

Osmotic pressure

Examples of which physical control method: jams and jellies, salting of meat


Damages genetic material

Ionizing radiation

X ray or gamma ray breaks sugar phosphate backbone of DNA by generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals

Ionizing radiation

Examples of which physical control method: Plastics, sutures, food irradiation

Nonionizing radiation

UV radiation formation of thymine dimers

Nonionizing radiation

Used in hospitals--labs nurseries meat lockers and food processing


damages by heat effect


Use of high frequency sound waves to disrupt mo's


Used in dental offices to clean tools also to remove plaque from teeth


First agent of control; toxic to humans; used in industrial applications; decontamination of sputum and fecal samples; chloraseptic mouthwash


Chemically related to phenol but less toxic; Cresol--methyl phenol--add to detergent and get lysol good environment disinfectant; Creosote--wood preservative


Antisceptics; Hexachloaphene--very effective against Staph infections in the past widely used but now rx; Hexyresorcinol-in mouthwash and throat losenges--will loosen mo's from mucus membrane surfaces; Triclosan--antibacterial soaps


Chlorine--oxidizing agent, effective against bacterial endospores, gas bubbles in pool water; Iodine--antiseptic


Mix of iodine and detergent used in surgical scrubs etc.--Betadine, Wescodyne, loprep


Methanol, ethanol, propanol; 70% more effective than pure; used for topical antiseptic for cuts etc.; food preservative

Heavy Metals

Denaturate Enzymes; Copper--algicide; Mercury-- as topical antiseptic; Silver--as silver nitrate

Quaternary ammonium compounds

Super detergents; Economical; broad spectrum; non toxic; antiseptic as well as disinfectant; used in commercial antibacterial soaps

Food preservatives

Sulfur dioxide--used in wine making; Organic acids (Sorbic acid, Calcium proprionate, sodium nitrate and nitrite)


Nisid--added to cheese; Natamycin--antifungal in cheese


Sporocidal; Formaldehyde, Gluteraldehyde

Ethylene Oxide

True chemical sterilant; gas highly explosice; used in pressurized chamber--cold autoclave; used on plastics, spices


Oxidizing agents; Ozone; Hydrogen peroxide; benzoyle peroxide; paracetic acid

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