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POL 101 Purdue Final
Terms in this set (77)
where do we get our news?
newspapers, magazines, radio. and TV
television, along with other things, has lead to narrowcasting. What is this?
broadcasting targeted to a smaller population/audience; As opposed to the traditional "broadcasting," the appeal to a narrow, particular audience by channels such as ESPN, MTV, and C-SPAN, which focus on a narrow particular interest.
what were the problems with early American press?
the press was extremely partisan and Lacked independence because they were dependent on parties for funding
what was the revolution that lead to appealing to mass audiences instead of elites?
the Jacksonian revolution
the penny press
cheap papers led to more superficial content designed to appeal to mass audiences
after Civil War; appeal to mass audience led to sensational reporting;
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
What is a pundit? name one
the tendency to make coverage and programming decisions based on what will attract a large audience and maximize profits
the effort to make the delivery of information more attractive by dressing it up as entertainment
what is the media comprised of today?
concentrated corporate power/ownership; Handful of corporations own almost all media
what are some alternatives to corporate media?
public radio and tv, alt. press, citizen journalism, and etc
equal time rule
if a station allows a candidate for office to buy or use airtime, it must allow all candidates to do so
the fairness doctrine
requires that stations give free airtime to issues that concern public and to opposing sides when controversial issues are covered
the right of rebuttel
individuals whose reputations are damaged on air have a right to respond
what did the Telecommunications act of 1996 do ?
abolished most limitations on station ownership, thus increasing possibilities for media monopoly
what are some methods of regulating the broadcast media?
the equal time rule, the fairness doctrine, the right of rebuttel,and the contents of the Telocom. Act of 1996
those journalists who decide what news gets covered and how
those journalists who confine their role to getting the facts of the story straight and moving the story out to the public quickly
investigate government's claims, analyze and interpret complex problems, discuss public policies
develop cultural and intellectual interests of the public, set the political agenda, let people express their views
what are some roles that journalists play?
they are gatekeepers, disseminators, investigators, and public mobilizer
what are some characteristics of journalists?
have a particular: Ideology
Most journalists are white, Democratic, Protestant,
the revolving door
the tendency of public officials, journalists, and lobbyists to move between public and private sector (media, lobbying) jobs
the rise of the pundit
a professional observer and commentator on politics
how does the media shape public opinion?
agenda setting, priming, framing, and persuasion by prof. communicators i.e. O'Reilly
influencing what issues are on the public agenda through the decision of what stories to cover
influencing the public's perception of certain people, events, and issues by the emphasis given to particular characteristics of them
the process through which the media emphasize particular aspects of a news story, thereby influencing the public's perception of the story
Persuasion by professional communicators
the tendency for viewers to agree with trusted newscasters and expert source
What statement best describes a communist government?
A system of government where there is a high level of government control of the economy and low level of control on social order
with such an involvement of the press/media, what has become extremely important for politics(/politicians)?
keeping their image
horse race journalism
the media's focus on the competitive aspects of politics rather than on actual policy proposals and political decisions
how does the media emphasize on image?
focus on what people look like, what they sound like, and how an event is staged
the tendency of reporters to concentrate on developing scandals to the exclusion of other, possibly more relevant, news events
"The Death Watch"
what is the Growing negativism, increased cynicism in broadcasting/journalism?
the tendency of reporters to be cynical about politics and to focus on the negative aspects of politics
how do networks/the media manage what/how news is spread?
prepackaging the news in soundbites, leaks, Concerted effort to bypass the White House press corps
what do proponents say of the future of the internet?
Increased information access for everyone
More politically engaged public
More informed electorate
what do skeptics say about the potential of the internet?
Selective attention and access to information
Inequalities in information
What term describes the media's emphasis on competition over substantive politics and policy?
horse race journalism
What tactics do pundits use to persuade the audience?
Talking to Experts
Cutting Off Mics
Comments that are made by pundits and their guests that may not on the surface seem insensitive, but can have a negative connotation
i.e. Referring to protesters as "thugs"
Name one pundit for American politics.
What is priming?
Why will Pundits stay around?
salaries, popularity, Kickbacks from advertising
name one consistant pundit fued?
Jon Stewart and O'Reilly
What is the digital Divide?
Information inequality that is driven by media and technology; the difference between those who have access to technology and those who do not
name some groups that are/can be part of the digital divide
elderly, disabled, homeless
Do we have Public internet and airwaves?
yes and no. many places do offer internet but getting a source to access the internet is a problem
Who owns the infrastructure of internet airwaves?
Telecoms and ISPs mostly own the infrastructure, but the problem is that taxpayers own the airwaves too. The problem is how best to distribute peacefully to get access to more people, especially those in rural areas
what is the problem with ISPs?
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are the gatekeepers of the Internet; Often in more rural areas, there is little competition locally when it comes to ISPs.
`Why is there still a (internet) divide in 2015?
Large Economic Inequalities.
Costs of technologies are still very high.
Little accommodation to disabled Americans.
what is The ideal democratic citizen?
A virtuous citizen concerned for the common good
Recognizes that democracy carries obligations as well as rights
Informed about politics and current events
what is The apolitical, self-interested citizen?
Inattentive and illinformed
Unlikely to participate
what are the Two competing views of citizenship?
ideal democratic and apolitical, self-interested
What influences our opinions about politics?
Schools and education
Groups - (The spiral of silence)
Political and social events
what are the Sources of divisionin public opinion?
Age - (Political generations )
Gender - (Gender gap; Marriage gap)
Race and ethnicity
What is Public Opinion?
Are Americans generally interested in politics?
yes, but most often for apolitical gains
what are some informal means of measuring public opinion?
personal contacts, mail from citizens
Allows politicians to pick up issues that could be missed in polls
Likely to have a sample bias
how do we measure opinio and keep up with modern public opinion polls
Literary Digest and the 1936 presidential election
The 1948 presidential election
What do we learn about Americans from polling?
Reactions to current events
Trust in Government and the political process
party identification and heuristics
a psychological short cut to understanding further information
One of the strongest variables for prediction in public opinion research
Measures which party you identify with, or whether you do identify with a party
Can be very useful to understand trends
how to Eliminating sample bias when Measuring and tracking public opinion
What is Party Identification?
a psychological short cut to understanding further information; very useful to understand trends
Name types of pseudo-polls
Name one large polling firm that collects and analyzes public opinion data .
Types of polls
National polls (e.g., CBS News/New York Times)
Campaign polls-Benchmark poll,Tracking poll. Exit poll
who is Nate Silver?
Founder of Fivethirtyeight.com
Known for his predictions and use of statistical models
Wrote for Baseball Prospectus
Predicted the last few elections with stunning accuracy
What are prediction models
statistical models that predict outcomes
Helpful for media
Helpful for understanding overall public opinion
How could politics benefit and be hindered from big data?
Heavy reliance on polling over other forms of informal public opinion
Who do the politicians cater to?
Republicans are known to cater to the rich
democrats who say they are champions of the poor, really cater to the upper middle class and higher
Why is economic inequality hard for the average person to see?
Americans aren't confronted with this fact everyday.
Bartels suggests they see the top earners as job creators, and want what's best for their continued employment.
Why is Lenny Bruce So Important?
Tried on obscenity charges, and lost in November 1964
Supported by Bob Dylan, Woody Allen, et al.
Who is George Carlin?
Career was kick-started by Lenny Bruce
Famous for his stand-up including the infamous "Filthy Words"
Seen as a highly influential comedian
FCC v. Pacifica
George Carlin's "Seven Dirty Words" was broadcast on radio
The Supreme Court confirms comedians' rights to say profanity in their sets,
FCC has the authority to censor when there may be children in the audience
Leads to rules about decency hours
what can we say about comedy in General?
can be seen as a veiled form of protest
can help people talk about uncomfortable issues
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