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Differences in the mode of vibration of vocal folds (chest voice, head voice, middle voice, whistle register)
a bass part written out in full and accompanied by numbers to indicate the chords to be played
Baroque practice consisting of an independent bass line that often includes numerals indicating the harmony to be supplied by the performer.
Four movements (fast-slow-dance-fast)
1st movement in sonata form
2nd movement was lyrical like an aria
3rd movement was in a dance form
4th movement was a fast finale
Comic German drama with spoken dialogue; the immediate predecessor of Romantic German opera.
Instrumental music endowed with literary or pictorial associations, especially popular in the nineteenth century.
a musical structure in which the same music is used for each stanza of a ballad, song, or hymn
Intermediate song structure that features some repetition or variations of a melody as well as new material
Theme and Variations
A theme is played in original form, then played again a # of times in sequence, each time varied a different way
Typical variation strategies
Decoration (ornamenting) the melody
Changing modes (e.g. minor to major)
Placing the melody in the bass
Changing the harmony
Changing the speed (tempo)
musical form that consists of 3 sections ABA, in which the A's stay the same and the B contrasts with A
The passive voice sometimes has a reflexive meaning, corresponding to the Greek Middle Voice.
Induitur vestem. He puts on his clothes.
Filling in the "cracks" of a scale
Effects how a melody is harmonized
Increased from the Classical to the Romantic to the Modern Period
very little dissonance; always resolved correctly harmonies relate to the key and derived from melody
increased dissonance; generally resolved correctly
functional harmonies relate to the key, but stretched chromatically
Speech-like portion in an opera
Often precedes an aria
Facilitates dramatic action without getting musically in the way
Sustained, sung solos
Slows the dramatic action
Experience the drama in greater depth
Allows the audience insight into the character
German composer of operas and inventor of the music drama in which drama and spectacle and music are fused (1813-1883)
An opera that avoids discrete numbers such as arias, recitatives, or ensembles, and in which the music reflects or embodies the action of the drama. Started by Wagner.
Like an opera, but not fully staged
Written as concert pieces
Similar to a numbers opera with recitatives and arias
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