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102 terms

Intro to Music

STUDY
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Timbre
n. The quality of a tone, as distinguished from intensity and pitch.3
Meter
rhythm as given by division into parts of equal time
Rhythm
the basic rhythmic unit in a piece of music
Melody
a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence
Texture
the musical pattern created by parts being played or sung together
Harmony
a harmonious state of things in general and of their properties (as of colors and sounds)
string instruments
Violin, Viola, Cello, Double Bass
brass instruments
trumpet, French horn, trombone, tuba
woodwinds
Flutes, Oboes, Clarinets, Bassoons, Piccolos, English Horns
Double reed
a pair of joined reeds that vibrate together to produce the sound in some woodwinds
Major
happy
Minor
sad
Monophony
music consisting of a single vocal part (usually with accompaniment)
Homophony
part music with one dominant voice (in a homophonic style)
Polyphony
music arranged in parts for several voices or instruments
Vocal Registers
Differences in the mode of vibration of vocal folds (chest voice, head voice, middle voice, whistle register)
Legato
without breaks between notes
Staccato
separating the notes
Duple
two beat measure
Little C
overarching genre
Emotional Listening
...
Attentive Listening
...
Big C
historical period
basso continuo
a bass part written out in full and accompanied by numbers to indicate the chords to be played
Figured Bass
Baroque practice consisting of an independent bass line that often includes numerals indicating the harmony to be supplied by the performer.
recitative
use of the basso continuo for accompaniment facilitated a new style of dramatic singing
opera
The signature form of the baroque era
Beauty
Classical Period
String quartet
(two violins, viola, cello)
Piano trio
(piano, violin, cello)
Woodwind Quintet
(flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, french horn)
symphony
Four movements (fast-slow-dance-fast)
1st movement in sonata form
2nd movement was lyrical like an aria
3rd movement was in a dance form
4th movement was a fast finale
Opera seria
Italian serious opera
Opera buffa
Comic opera
Singspiel
Comic German drama with spoken dialogue; the immediate predecessor of Romantic German opera.
program music
Instrumental music endowed with literary or pictorial associations, especially popular in the nineteenth century.
Strophic
a musical structure in which the same music is used for each stanza of a ballad, song, or hymn
Modified Strophic
Intermediate song structure that features some repetition or variations of a melody as well as new material
Theme and Variations
A theme is played in original form, then played again a # of times in sequence, each time varied a different way
Typical variation strategies
Decoration (ornamenting) the melody
Changing modes (e.g. minor to major)
Placing the melody in the bass
Changing the harmony
Changing the speed (tempo)
Return-based forms
Ternary
Rondo
Sonata form
Ternary
musical form that consists of 3 sections ABA, in which the A's stay the same and the B contrasts with A
Rondo
A musical composition during which the first part or subject is repeated several times.
Sonata form
a musical form having 3 sections -- exposition and development and recapitulation
Embouchure
the aperture of a wind instrument into which the player blows directly
Staccato
marked by or composed of disconnected parts or sounds
SATB
Soprano - Alto - Tenor - Bass
Soprano
the pitch range of the highest female voice
Alto
the pitch range of the lowest female voice
Tenor
the pitch range of the highest male voice
Bass
the lowest adult male singing voice
Countertenors
Men who can sing in high voice
Chest voice
the lower ranges of the voice in speaking or singing
Head voice
the higher ranges of the voice in speaking or singing
Middle voice
The passive voice sometimes has a reflexive meaning, corresponding to the Greek Middle Voice.
Induitur vestem. He puts on his clothes.
timbre
(music) the distinctive property of a complex sound (a voice or noise or musical sound)
Vandervelde: Genesis II
Piano Trio: violin, cello, piano
Duple Meter
2 or 4 beats per measure
Triple Meter
three beats per measure
Strong, memorable melody
short, uncomplicated piece
Short melodic material
long, highly developed piece
Intervals
intervening periods of time; periods of temporary pause; space between to objects
Conjucnt
Smooth, connected melody that moves principally by small intervals
Disjunct
progressing melodically by intervals larger than a major second
Open
sounds unfinished
Closed
sounds final
Phrasing
Like a music sentence
major
happy
minor
sad
Consonance
The repetition of consonant sounds
Dissonance
harsh or grating sounds that do not go together
Monophony
one note at a time
Polyphony
more than one melody at a time
Homophony
melody and harmony move together
Melody and accompaniment
melody stands out, but accompaniment moves independently
Key
the musical center of a song
fugue
the Subject - melodic theme
Presented in each voice
Tossed around, fragmented, developed
Harmony
Chords that support the melody, and how those chords relate to each other
Texture
How many different things are going on in the music
Chromaticism
Filling in the "cracks" of a scale
Effects how a melody is harmonized
Increased from the Classical to the Romantic to the Modern Period
Bach
very little dissonance; always resolved correctly harmonies relate to the key and derived from melody
Beethoven
moderate dissonance; always resolved functional harmonies relate to the key
Chopin
increased dissonance; generally resolved correctly
functional harmonies relate to the key, but stretched chromatically
Three types of text-music relationship
Semantic
Phonetic
Syntactic
Semantic
referring to the relationships between words and meanings
Phonetic
of or relating to speech sounds
Syntactic
grammatical
Plot content supported by music
Character themes
Emotion
Action
Scene change
Genre
Opera Seria
serious opera
Oratorio
a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text
Musical Numbers
songs, ensembles, instrumental
Recitative
Speech-like portion in an opera
Often precedes an aria
Facilitates dramatic action without getting musically in the way
Aria
Sustained, sung solos
Slows the dramatic action
Experience the drama in greater depth
Allows the audience insight into the character
Verdi
Italian operatic composer (1813-1901)
Wagner
German composer of operas and inventor of the music drama in which drama and spectacle and music are fused (1813-1883)
music drama
An opera that avoids discrete numbers such as arias, recitatives, or ensembles, and in which the music reflects or embodies the action of the drama. Started by Wagner.
Oratorio
Like an opera, but not fully staged
Written as concert pieces
Similar to a numbers opera with recitatives and arias
Absolute Music
Music that has no literary, dramatic, or pictorial program
Comic Opera
opera with a happy ending and in which some of the text is spoken
Opera Buffa
Comic opera
leider
A German art song for solo voice and piano.
12 tone composers
Schoenderg, webren, berg