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Developmental Psychology (Ch. 11)
Terms in this set (222)
Approximately 3% of 8th graders, 4.7% of 10th graders, and 5.6% of 12th graders report taking medicines containing ___ to get high.
DMX, a cough suppressant
___ are more likely to use firearms to commit suicide.
Which of the following increases the likelihood that a teenager will abuse drugs?
-A difficult temperament
-Poor impulse control
In what order do the following pubertal characteristics in males typically develop?
-Increase in penis & testicle size
-Appearance of straight pubic hair
-Minor voice change
-Onset of maximum growth in height and weight
-Growth of facial hair
Which of the following is NOT a theorist that discussed moral development?
NOT: Urie Bronfenbrenner
In an international study, living in a two-parent family was a key predictor of ___ competence.
Formal operational thought includes which of the following?
-Hypothetical and logical reasoning
By age 16 to 18, the average young person knows approximately ___ words.
The belief that people can master tasks and regulate their own learning is called ___-___.
As with the development of concrete operations, ___ and ___ play a role.
A weight less than 85% of what is considered normal for age and height, an intense fear of gaining weight, and a distorted body image are all characteristics of ___ ___.
Which statement regarding the influence parents on adolescents' moral reasoning is TRUE:
neither Piaget nor Kohlberg considered parents important to children's moral development
Changes associated with puberty typically begin at age ___ in girls and age ___ in boys.
Which of the following brain networks interact to influence risk taking in adolescence?
-a cognitive-control network
-a socioemotional network
Which of the following is a primary sex characteristic?
testes and penis growth
___ parents can be very nurturing and believe that teenagers should be responsible for their own lives.
___ parents praise their children for getting good grades and give them privileges for doing so; if their children do no do well, they encourage them to try harder.
Notions of adolescence are affected by which of the following settings?
Some of the most visible changes associated with physical maturation are ___.
increases in height and weight
Studies have found that young people ages 16-29 are most likely to be involved in automobile crashes caused by the driver ___ ___.
Of the following, who is likely to experience menarche at the youngest age?
Desiree, who is African American
The onset of a girl's first menstrual period is commonly referred to as ___.
Which of the following has NOT been identified as a cause of obesity in adolescence?
-Having obese parents
-Faulty regulation of metabolism
NOT: Peers who are overweight
A boy's first ejaculation is called:
In preindustrial societies, children were considered adults when they:
-began a vocational apprenticeship
Prosocial moral reasoning ___ with age.
According to Piaget, the ___ stage is the fourth and final stage of cognitive development.
A parents who is never satisfied with his child's good grades and punishes the child for poor grades is engaging in ___ parenting.
Among the outcomes listed, select those that result from dropping out of high school:
-involvement with drugs, crime, and delinquency
According to Carol Gilligan, women place caring and ___ ___ as higher goals than justice.
A student's desire to learn for the sake of learning is called:
According to Kohlberg, moral reasoning is fundamentally concerned with sound reasoning about principles of:
Physiological signs of sexual maturation that don't directly involve the sex organs are called ___ sex characteristics.
The most widely used illicit drug in the US is:
The prefrontal cortex, which does not finish developing until late adolescence or early adulthood, is involved with which of the following functions?
The repeated, harmful use of alcohol or other drugs is called:
An eating disorder in which the individual consistently follows a binge-and-purge pattern is known as:
Which psychological disorder increases during adolescence?
Which of the following are possible reasons why girls experience higher rates of depression than boys?
-girls are socialized differently than boys
-girls have greater vulnerability to stress in social relationships
___ is the period of rapid physical growth & hormonal changes during early adolescence that prepares the body for reproduction.
A concern with ___ ___ may lead to obsessive efforts at weight control.
Anorexia nervosa is characterized by the pursuit of thinness through:
Which statement is true regarding the basis for educational practices in the US?
students are motivated to learn
One important change in brain development during adolescence is a steady increase in ___ matter.
By middle to late adolescence, young people have (fewer/smaller) ___ but stronger, smoother, and more effective neuronal connections, making cognitive processing more efficient.
Which parenting style is associated with higher levels of moral reasoning in children?
Underdevelopment of the frontal cortical systems may explain why adolescents tend to:
-find it hard to focus on long-term goals
-seek thrills and novelty
What is the average age of menarche in US girls?
___ parents seem indifferent to grades, make no rules about watching television, do not attend school functions, and do not get involved in their children's homework.
Which two ethnic groups are most likely to drop out of high school?
Substance abuse in adolescence is (likely/unlikely) ___ to continue into adulthood.
Obesity is ___ % more prevalent in those from poor families.
In terms of gender, fat accumulates twice as rapidly in ___ as in ___.
According to Kohlberg, the level in which people make their own judgements on the basis of principle of right, fairness, and justice is Level ___.
Which two factors are associated with high occupational goals in adolescence?
-Parents' values with regard to academic achievement
The maturation of the adrenal gland is called:
Advances in cognitive development and reasoning appear to influence adolescents' ___ behavior.
Which of the following explanations may explain the secular trend in puberty?
-Higher standard of living
The entire process of puberty takes about ___ years for boys and girls.
3 to 4
An example of ___ knowledge is the understanding of why an algebraic equation remains true if the same amount is added or subtracted from both sides.
Piaget's theory does not pay adequate attention to cognitive advances, such as:
-gains in information-processing
-expertise in specific fields
When children want to please and help others, they are most likely in Stage ___ of Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
An accelerator student works:
more than 20 hours a week while in high school
In the United States, approximately 17% of 12th graders are current ___ smokers.
Among surviving anorexia patients, ___ make a full recovery.
less than one-half
Trevor is a student with low self-efficacy. After failing his geometry test, Trevor is likely to conclude:
-the test was too hard
-the test was unfair
Compared to an adolescent in the 1990's, an adolescent today is less likely to use:
The skills a person has acquired while learning to drive a car is called ___ knowledge.
Which of the following criteria are recommended for effective schools for young adolescents?
-lower student-to-counselor ratios
-boosting students' health and fitness
Kenny understands that he cannot cross the street without a parent holding his hand. When his friend Toby, who lives across the street, calls him to come over, he says that he can't because if he does, his mother will punish him. At which level of reasoning is Kenny?
Level 1 (Preconventional)
In his early writings, Piaget paid (little/a great deal of attention) ___ to variations in the same child's performance on different kinds of tasks.
During adolescence, the ___ ___ thickens, aiding the ability to process information.
Consuming ___ or more drinks on one occasion is considered binge drinking.
At the beginning of the adolescent period, ___ (girls/boys) tend to be as tall or taller than (girls/boys) of the same age.
High-quality schools that foster student achievement have all of the following qualities except:
having schools that exceed the typical nine month school year
In Stage ___ of Kohlberg's theory, children obey rules to avoid punishment.
A recent study found that even children with no ___-___ history were still at an increased risk for negative outcomes based on early exposure to alcohol and drugs.
Youth death rates from firearms have ___ (increased/declined) since 1995.
Which of the following helps to explain why poor and minority adolescents are more likely to drop out of high school?
-differential treatment of these students
-low teacher expectations
Which treatment for eating disorders involves working with the patient to change his/her distorted body image and rewards eating with privileges?
cognitive behavioral therapy
Research suggests that ___ may play a permissive role for puberty to start.
Which statement is true regarding the completion of high school among adolescents today?
more students finish high school than ever before
The ability to tailor one's speech to another person's point of view is called ___ ___-___.
When does substance abuse typically begin?
when children enter middle school
What is the leading cause of death among US teenagers?
motor vehicle collisions
In the US, less than ___ % of adolescent girls and young women develop anorexia nervosa.
The understanding that "chair is a noun" is an example of ___ knowledge.
___ cultures place more restrictions on female adolescents to protect their virginity and family status.
___ is a sleep-inducing hormone.
Johnny has hit the age of sexual maturation, which means he is at the onset of
Puberty can be broken down into ___ basic stages.
Which of the following individuals is likely to reach puberty at the earliest age? more
Olivia, who is overweight
The changes that take place in puberty today typically begin at age ___ in girls and age ___ in boys.
Developmental scientists have found that over time, there has been a drop in the ages when puberty begins and when young people reach adult height and sexual maturity. This is known as a(n)
A major spurt in production of _____ in the frontal lobes begins around puberty.
The socio-emotional network of the brain becomes more active at puberty, which may help explain teenagers' tendency toward
emotional outbursts and risky behavior.
In the second stage of puberty, a girl's ovaries increase their output of which hormone?
In the second stage of puberty, a boy's testes increase their output of what hormone?
The time of the rush of hormonal activity that begins puberty changes specifically depends on a critical amount of ____ in the body for successful reproduction.
The rapid increase in height, weight, and muscle and bone growth that occurs during puberty is called the adolescent ______ spurt.
There is a secular trend in an earlier onset of puberty and an earlier growth spurt in children today related to
-the amount of body fat in children.
The _____ is a brain structure that plays an important role in emotional and instinctual reactions.
After getting into a huge fight with her boyfriend, 18-year-old Allison feels intense anger. To control her emotions, Allison will rely on the
With regard to changes in brain development, ______ with age.
white matter increases
Anson knows that Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president of the United States and that 5 X 5 = 25. This type of factual information is called ________ knowledge.
______ knowledge refers to acquired skills—such as understanding how to use a computer—stored in long-term memory.
The expansion of ________ contributes to older adolescents' ability to deal with complex problems and to make decisions involving multiple pieces of information.
Anita understands that a mathematical equation remains true if the same amount is added or subtracted from both sides. According to the information-processing perspective, Anita is demonstrating ______ knowledge.
As a result of the immaturity of the ______ brain, the U.S. Supreme Court in 2005 ruled out the death penalty for a convicted murderer younger than seventeen.
The socioemotional network of the adolescent provides him with
The cognitive network of the adolescent involves the _____ stimuli.
Research shows that early adolescents, ages eleven to thirteen, tend to use the brain's ______ to process information.
Research has shown that later adolescents, ages fourteen to seventeen, tend to use more adult patterns of thinking and use the ______ area of the brain to process information.
In this clip Dr. Dahl discusses biological bases of adolescence change. He argues that much of puberty may be the result of
brain changes that dictate hormonal changes.
Dr. Dahl states that adolescent hormones
Simone is a teenager that likes to stay up all night. Dr. Dahl argues this is the result of
nature / nurture interactions.
Scientists have found the region of the brain that inhibits risky behavior isn't fully formed until
A 16 year old inherently is going to have more difficulty
resisting the distractions that might interfere with good driving.
According to the research, young people consistently
take greater risks when their friends are watching, but they take the same number of risks as adults when they are by themselves.
Legislatures around the country are thinking of doing all of the following to assist teen drivers EXCEPT:
requiring teens to drive SUVs for extra protection in accident.
Sally has begun menstruation, which means she
The first stage of puberty begins with the secretion of androgens from the adrenal glands at about ____ years of age.
6 to 8
Increased levels of ____ may signal the pituitary and sex glands to increase hormones in preparation for the beginning of puberty.
The _____ sex characteristics are the organs necessary for reproduction.
The _____ sex characteristics are the physiological signs of sensual maturation that do not directly involve the sex organs.
The interaction of two brain networks—the socioemotional network and the cognitive-control network—contributes to adolescent
Drug use is particularly harmful during the adolescent years because
the brain is growing rapidly.
According to a survey by the World Health Organization, ____ out of 10 adolescents call themselves healthy.
An average of ____ percent of adolescents, mostly boys, report morning sleepiness at least once a week.
Among older adolescents, ____ is 50 percent more prevalent in those from poor families.
Although Tammie is severely underweight, she believes she is too fat and engages in self-starvation. She engages in perfectionistic behavior and is a straight-A student. Tammie likely suffers from
A harmful use of alcohol or other drugs is called substance
_____ is the fourth leading cause of death among U.S. 15- to 19-year-olds.
Improved strength and endurance and healthier bones and muscle are some benefits one can most directly earn from
An epidemic among adolescents today is sleep
The main risk factor for overweight adolescence is lack of
An addiction that may be physiological, psychological, or both and that may continue into adulthood is called substance
A correlation between puberty and the mental health issue of _____ has developed among adolescent girls.
In this clip Nurse Becky is talking about obesity. All of the following are potential reasons EXCEPT
In this clip, Nurse Becky suggests that parents
encourage physical activity.
All of the following are foods Nurse Becky thinks kids should avoid EXCEPT
fruits high in sugar.
In this clip 15-year-olds Becky, Jenny and Shena discuss adolescence and weight. They argue, "even skinny girls feel fat". One factor for this that is mentioned is
In the video, the girls note that _________ actually promote(s) acceptance of diversity, including differences in body shape.
attending public elementary and middle school
Based on their statements in the video, the girls appear to have
a favorable self-image.
In this clip, Dr. Anderson discussed eating disorders. The main types include all of the following EXCEPT
A key aspect of restrictive anorexia would be
low calorie intake.
A key aspect of binging anorexia would be
eating extreme amounts of food periodically.
In this clip two 15-year-old girls discuss drug use. Overall they think:
Even though it's illegal it's not bad
Overall, the girls' biggest concern is about drug use is:
People overdoing it or drugs in excess
In this clip 15-year-old girls discuss drug use. All of the following are drugs that they feel are commonly used EXCEPT:
The girls seem to feel that one drug in particular is okay to use and can see no issue with it. Which drug is it?
The girls seem to feel that one drug in particular is really NOT okay to use. Which drug is it?
__________ are more likely to attempt suicide; __________ are more likely to succeed in killing themselves.
Of the following ethnicities—Caucasian, African American, Asian—adolescents of which group are most likely to commit suicide?
In the past twenty years, the suicide rates of adolescents have
The personality factor associated with increased suicide susceptibility in adolescents is
Which of the following factors is associated with increased risk for suicide in adolescents?
school and family problems
Adolescent reports of health problems, including headache, backache, stomachache, nervousness, and feeling tired, lonely, or low is especially common
in the United States.
The time taken up by activities such as doing homework, texting friends, and surfing the Web is a primary reason why adolescents experience sleep
Overweight adolescents tend to have problems with
-doing household chores
Alexa's parents notice that every time she eats, she quickly visits the bathroom. She has also started a strict diet and her mother recently found an empty box of laxatives in Alexa's room. Alexa may have
Consuming five or more alcoholic drinks on one occasion constitutes _____ drinking in males.
According to Piaget, adolescents enter the highest level of cognitive development, which is the:
formal operations stage.
Danica has acquired interpretive understandings stored in her long-term memory. For example, she understands why an algebraic equation remains true even if the same amount is added or subtracted from both sides. Danica has acquired ______ knowledge.
Lawrence Kohlberg has identified ___ levels of moral reasoning.
Ozzy is now eleven years old; he has recently recognized that his younger brother's stories are not fact. Ozzy has developed the use of _______ thinking.
Gaining the ability to solve problems by looking at different alternatives is the development of hypothetical _______ reasoning.
According to Piaget, both brain maturation and environmental opportunities bring about the adolescent shift to ____ reasoning.
The role of situation means the influence of children's
Changes in the working memory capacity and the increasing amount of knowledge stored in long-term memory are called _____ change.
According to Kohlberg, the level of moral reasoning that includes maintaining social order, and social concern and conscience, is:
Fowler's theory based on Kohlberg's work seeks to understand the stages of:
Kohlberg's early stages of moral development correspond to Piaget's stages of moral development in childhood.
Fowler's third stage of faith, synthetic-conventional faith, is typical of individuals who think of God mainly in terms of obedience and punishment.
Kohlberg's theory of moral development states that
people pass through a fixed series of stages in moral reasoning, but many never reach the final stage of moral development.
When Billy is asked why he should not lie to his parents, he responds, "Because you will get in big trouble if you are caught lying!" Billy's response reflects the _________ stage of moral development.
Ken believes that smoking marijuana is okay because most people find it a perfectly reasonable pastime. Ken's moral reasoning is best categorized as
Camilla feels that it is all right to steal a loaf of bread if it is to save a starving person's life and human life transcends the law. Camilla is most likely in the _________ stage of moral development.
In the ________ stage of moral development, people judge the morality of an action in terms of whether it is acceptable to society or not.
How many identifiable developmental constructive stages did Kohlberg claim that moral reasoning had?
Kohlberg classified moral responses into three levels:
pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional.
Jenny does her homework because she is afraid that if she doesn't, her parents will get angry with her and she will get in trouble. According to Kohlberg, Jenny's actions exemplify what stage of moral reasoning?
obedience and punishment orientation
What is "moral dumbfounding"?
where people have strong moral reactions, but have no logical reasoning to explain their feelings
Which theorist proposed that Kohlberg's theory has a strong male bias, and thus does not adequately address the ways in which women make moral decisions?
-Moral thinking is tied to punishment
-Individuals pursue their own interests, but let others do the same
-Individuals value caring, trust, and loyalty to others as a basis for moral judgements
-Moral judgements are based on understanding of the social order, law, justice, and duty
-Values, rights, and principles are seen as transcending the law
-When faced with a dilemma b/w law and conscience, an individual conscience is followed
In Piaget's stage of formal operations, adolescents develop the capacity for _____ thought.
Changes in the way adolescents process information reflects the maturation of the brain's
At age 17, Harper knows approximately _______ words.
The first level of Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning is
A central organizing experience in an adolescent's life is
The belief that a student can master tasks and regulate her own learning is called
Which of the following is TRUE of parents' influence on motivation and achievement?
Parental influence can be less important than self belief.
Which of the following statements about gender and achievement is FALSE?
-Boys and girls score about the same in most areas of subject-matter.
-Girls earn better grades than boys.
-Boys receive more favorable attention from teachers than girls.
NOT: Boys are more likely than girls to finish college.
In terms of occupational options in the United States:
students' self-efficacy beliefs shape the options they consider.
Authoritative parents tell adolescents not to argue with, or question, adults.
Teachers tend to discipline boys more harshly than girls.
Girls tend to have greater confidence in their academic abilities than boys.
Low-income student's dropout rates have declined significantly over the past 30 years.
Dropout rates across the United States are relatively stable.
Male and female high school seniors are now equally likely to plan careers in math and science.
In this clip, 16-year-olds Claudia, Jessica, and Jenny discuss school. One of the girls discusses that she is secluded from other kids because ________.
she is in a special program where all classes are taken together with the same kids.
The second girl that talks says she goes to a preppy Catholic school. One of the difficulties she faces is that ________.
she used to be top in her class but now that she is around other smart kids she is not.
The third girl likes her school because ________.
it's all girls.
In this clip, 15-year-olds Becky, Jenny and Shena discuss adolescence. One of the things they like best about high school is the
In terms of friendships, 15-year-olds Becky, Jenny and Shena argue that one of the advantages of adolescence is
if you like someone and your friends don't like them it's OK.
Sharika is a 15-year-old high school student. She's friends with a group of girls she has known for several years. Now in high school, she meets a new friend Tamlyn whom her other friends don't like. According to the 15-year-olds interviewed in the clip, her friends are most likely going to
In the United States,
more students finish high school than ever before.
In Western cultures, the benefits of _____ parenting continue to affect school achievement during adolescence.
A developmental transition that involves physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes and takes varying forms in different social, cultural, and economic settings is called
Today, physicians in some Western societies are seeing pubescent changes well before the age of
The ability to reproduce is called
Kendra is beginning the adolescent and puberty process, which tells us traditionally, Kendra is probably about _____ years of age.
Adolescence is different in various cultures, which tell us that adolescence is a ____ construction.
Adolescence is a time of growth in
Adolescents are best said to spend much of their time in autonomy away from the world of
The girls in this video seem comfortable with who they are and are fairly established in their friendships and how they want to look. In which of Marcia's identity statuses are they?
According to Marcia, as they work toward establishing an identity, adolescents engage in a period of conscious decision making. This is referred to as a(n) ____________.
The girls in the video gave a common means of determining what makes a person unique. This means provides them with a symbol of who they are. What is this means?
The process that leads to sexual maturity or fertility is called
Today, we define adolescence as roughly the years between ____ and _____.
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