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Human Phys Worksheet: Chapter 9
Don't forget to study the notes, too! Here's the link to the quizlet for the notes. http://quizlet.com/17141335/human-phys-notes-chapter-9-flash-cards/
Terms in this set (32)
What are the two major types of cells that form nervous tissue?
Neurons and neuroglial cells
What are the two major subdivisions of the nervous system?
The central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
How do sensory receptor collect information?
They detect changes inside and outside of the body by monitoring internal and external environmental factors
How does the central nervous system integrate incoming information?
Impulses are brought together, creating sensations, either adding to memory or helping produce thoughts that translate sensations into perceptions
What are the two types of motor functions of the nervous system?
Muscles and glands
List the functions of the cells that support neurons.
1. To fill spaces
2. To provide structural frameworks
3. To produce fatty lipoprotein (myelin)
4. To carry on phagocytosis
Distinguish among the types of neuroglial cells in the central nervous system.
Microglial cells: support neurons and phagocytize bacterial cells/cellular debris
Oligodendrocytes: form insulating myelin layers around axons in the brain and spinal cord
Astrocytes: provide structural support, join parts, and help regulate ion and nutrient concentrations
Ependymal cells: epithelia-like membrane that covers specialized brain parts and lines the spaces in the brain and spinal cord
Describe the components of a neuron.
Cell body, dendrites, and an axon
What is the function of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system?
Produce the myelin sheaths (coverings) for neurons
Distinguish between a dendrite and an axon.
Dendrites may be numerous and receive electrochemical messages, but axons are usually singular per cell and send nerve impulses
Define all-or-none response as it relates to nerve impulse conduction.
If a neuron responds at all, it responds completely; this occurs when a stimulus of threshold intensity or above is applied to an axon, and all impulses carried on that axon are of the same strength
Describe the events that occur at a synapse.
When a nerve impulse reaches a synaptic knob, some of the synaptic vesicles release a neurotransmitter which diffuses across the synaptic cleft and reacts with specific receptors
Distinguish between the actions of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters.
Excitatory: neurotransmitters that bring the polysynaptic membrane closer to threshold and trigger nerve impulses.
Inhibitory: make it less likely that threshold will be reached
Distinguish between convergence and divergence.
Convergence: axons which originate in different parts of the nervous system but lead to the same neuron
Divergence: impulses which leave the same neurons, but are received by different axons, amplifying the impulse
How does a mixed nerve differ from a sensory nerve? From a motor nerve?
Sensory nerves: conduct impulses to the brain or spinal cord
Motor nerves: carry impulses to muscles or glands
Mixed nerves: include both sensory and motor fibers
List the parts of a reflex arc.
Sensory receptors, interneurons, motor neurons, and effectors
Describe the meninges.
Layered membranes that lie between bony coverings in the CNS and protect the brain or spinal cord
Name the layers of the meninges.
Dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater
State the location of cerebrospinal fluid.
Between the arachnoid and pia maters
Describe the structure of the spinal cord.
31 segments with a pair of spinal nerves that each branch out and connect to the CNS
Distinguish between an ascending and a descending tract.
Sensory information being carried to the brain follows the ascending tracts. The descending tracts conduct impulses from the brain to muscles or glands
List the major divisions of the brain.
Cerebrum, the diencephalon, the brain stem, and the cerebellum
What are the major functions of the thalamus? The hypothalamus?
The thalamus is a central relay station for ascending nervous impulses. The hypothalamus maintains homeostasis by regulating visceral functions
What are the major functions of the cerebrum?
Interprets sensory impulses, initiates voluntary muscle movement, stores information (memory), utilizes it to reason, and is responsible for personality/intelligence
List the structures of the brain stem.
Midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
Where is the cerebellum located?
Below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum and posterior to the pons and medulla oblongata
What are the major functions of the cerebellum?
A reflex center for integrating sensory information concerning the position of body parts, for coordinating complex skeletal muscle movements, and
Define peripheral nervous system.
PNS; nerves that branch out from the CNS to connect it to other body parts
Name and locate the major nerve plexuses.
Cervical plexuses: deep in the neck on either side
Brachial plexuses: deep within the shoulders between the neck and axillae
Lumbosacral plexuses: from the lumbar region of the back into the pelvic cavity
What parts of the nervous system are in the autonomic nervous system?
Sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways
Describe a sympathetic nerve pathway and a parasympathetic nerve pathway.
Sympathetic nerve pathways prepare the body for energy-expending, stressful, or emergency situations. Parasympathetic nerve pathways are active under normal conditions and counterbalance the sympathetic pathway by restoring the body to a resting state
Which neurotransmitters operate in the autonomic nervous system?
Acetylcholine and norepinephrine
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