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Chapter 12

Where does opium come from? What did Chinese doctors use it for?
It was used as a pain killer and it came from poppy seeds.
Who smuggled opium into China for recreational use?
British merchants
How many Chinese people were addicted by 1835?
12 million Chinese people
Who did the Chinese gov't appoint to destroy the opium trade? How many chests did he destroy? What was Britain's response?
Lin Zexu destroyed 20,000 chests which caused the Opium War. The British was winning with its advanced navy and military with attacks but the Chinese didn't sue for peace.
How did G.B. finally win the Opium War?
The British attacked the Grad Canal by going up the Yangtze River which called Chinese gov't to surrender.
What did the Treaty of Nanjing do?
Forced China to give Hong Kong to Britain and grant extraterritoriality to British and U.S. citizens.
What is extraterritoriality?
It was where foreigners were not subject to Chinese laws.
How many Chinese ports were under foreign control by 1900?
90 ports
What was China's population by 1900?
475 million people
Why were Chinese peasants angry?
they dislikes the widespread of gov't officials and the concentration of land in the hands of wealth elites plagued china
Who started the Taiping Rebellion?
Hong Xiuqum who was a school teacher
What did he call for?
He called for the destruction of the Qing Dynasty, the abolition of private property, the creation of communal wealth to be shared, the prohibition of foot binding, free public education, and literacy for everyone.
What city did the Taipings capture in 1853?
How did the Taiping Rebellion end? How many Chinese people were killed?
With help from the European powers, Chinese gov't put down the rebellion when Hong Xiuqum committed suicide and the rest of the Taipings were masqueraded by the end of the year. 30 million people were killed
What power did the Chinese gov't give local leaders during the Self-Strengthening movement?
The authority to raise troops, levy taxes, and run bureaucracies.
What was the slogan of the movement?
Chinese learning at the base, Western learning for use.
How did China modernize during this movement?
The built modern shipyards, railroads, weapons industries, steel foundries, and opened science academies.
How did Empress Cixi go against the movement?
She diverted funds intended for the navy to build a marble boat for private garden.
What countries had spheres of influence in China?
Germany, France, G.B., Japan and Russia
What were the Hundred Days Reforms? (7 main things)
Emperor Gangxu launched a sweeping program to transform China into a constitutional monarchy, guarantee civil liberties, root out corruption, remodel the education system, encourage foreign influence in China, modernize the military, and stimulate economic reforms.
Describe the Boxer Rebellion in detail.
The Boxers went on a rampage in northern China, killing foreigners and Chinese Christians. Confident that weapons could not hurt them, they besieged foreign embassies in Beijing. The Boxers were quickly crushed by US and European coalition army.
What did the outcome of the Boxer Rebellion force China to do?
China was forced to pay reparations and allow foreign powers to station troops in Beijing and other cities.
What did Matthew Perry do in 1853?
He arrived in Tokyo and aimed its guns on the capital of Tokyo to open relations trading.
What did the Treaty of Kanagawa do? (4 things)
Granted US trading rights, opened ports, granted foreigners extraterritoriality and Japan lost all rights to place tariffs on goods.
What 3 other countries won trading rights in Japan?
Britain, Netherlands, and Russia
What effect did the Tokugawa Shogun's decision have on Japan?
led to large numbers of samurai flocking to the old capital of kyoto where they rallied around the slogan "revere the emperor, expel the barbarians."
Who won the civil war in Japan? How did they do this?
Tokugawa opponents won due to the use of militia units trained by foreign experts and armed with imported weapons.
Who became emperor of Japan in Jan. of 1868?
Why did the Mejia gov't send students to Europe and the U.S.?
To understand industrialization which would improve Japan's military and Japan also wanted to be equal with foreign powers.
What did Fukuzawa Yukichi write about?
Benefits of a constitutional gov't, justice system and a modern educational system
What did the Japanese gov't copy from the U.S. and Europe?
G.B's navy, Germany's army and US's power of universal education
How big was Japan's army by 1890?
What led to the Sino-Japanese war? Who won? What effect did this have?
China broke the hands-off policy by sending troops to Korea. Janpan won and drove the Chinese out of Korea, destroyed the Chinese navy and gained colonies in Manchuria, Taiwan, and Pescadores Islands.
What led to the Russo-Japanese war? Who won?
Russia and Japan argued over Japan's presence in Manchuria. Japan offered to recognize Russia's rights in Manchuria if Russia promised to stay out of Korea and Russia refused. Japan won.
What did the Treaty of Portsmouth do?
It forced Russia to stay out of Korea and Manchuria.
What did Japan do to Korea in 1905?
Japan sent advisors who took away power from the Korean gov't, disbanded Korea's army, and brought Korea under direct Japanese control by annexing it.
How did the Japanese treat the Koreans? Give specific examples.
The Japanese were harsh rulers, they shut down Korean newspapers, took over schools, replaced the study of Korean language and history with Japanese subjects, took away land from Koreans and gave it to Japanese settlers and forbade Koreans from starting businesses.
What did the Monroe Doctrine state?
The American continents were closed for further European colonization.
What did Cuba do in 1868? Did this work?
Declared independence from Spain then fought a 10 year war and lost.
What did Jose Marti do in 1895?
He returned and launched a second war for Cuban independence.
Why did the U.S. declare war on Spain?
Because the Spanish were imprisoning the Cubans in concentration camps but really the US had businesses in Cuba.
Who won the Spanish-American war? Why did they win?
US because the Spanish could not fight on two fronts.
What lands did the U.S. get as a result of the war?
Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines
What led to a lot anti-American resentment in Cuba?
The US installed a military base
How far did one have to travel to get from the Atlantic to the Pacific via the tip of South America in the 1800s?
13,000 miles
What did President Teddy Roosevelt do in 1903?
Offered Colombia, which opened panama, $ 10 million upfront and an annual payment for the right to build a canal in Panama.
What was Colombia's response to this? How did the U.S. respond to Colombia's response?
1. Colombia demanded more money. The US encouraged Panama to revolt against Colombia.
What did Panama give the U.S. in 1903?
10 mile wide zone to build the canal
Why did thousands of workers die in the 10 year construction period of the canal?
Malaria, Yellow Fever, Bubonic Plague, and Extreme Heat
When did the canal officially open?
What is a corollary?
What did the Roosevelt Corollary do?
Gave the US the right to be an international police power in the Western Hemisphere.