77 terms

Edexcel GCSE Physical Education Vocab

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Aerobic
'With oxygen'. If exercise is not too fast and is steady, the heart can supply all the oxygen muscles need.
Aesthetic Appreciation
To be able to see the beauty in a performance
Agility
The ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of the whole body.
Anaerobic
'Without oxygen'. If exercise is done in short, fast bursts, the heart cannot supply blood and oxygen to muscles as fast as the cells use them.
Balance
The ability to retain the body's center of mass (gravity) above the base of support with reference to static (stationary) or dynamic (changing), conditions of movement, shape and orientation.
Balanced diet
A diet which contains an optimal ration of nutrients.
Blood Pressure
The force exerted by the heart as it pumps blood out of the heart and into the arteries (systolic high pressure) and it is low when it relaxes between beats (diastolic)
Body Composition
The percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle or bone.
Cardiac output
The amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute
Cardiovascular fitness
The ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time.
Circuit Training
A set of 6 to 10 exercises performed at stations in an organised pattern.
Each exercise is performed for a specified number of repetitions or for a prescribed time before moving on to the next exercise
Cooper's run test
A test of cardiovascular fitness
Coordination
The ability to use two or more body parts together
Cross training
Using more than one training method
Exercise
A form of physical activity done to maintain or improve health and/or physical fitness
Fartlek training
This type of training allows an athlete to run at varying speeds, over unmeasured distances, on different terrain. (Swedish for 'speed play'
Fitness
The ability to meed the demands of the environment
FITT
Frequency, intensity, time, type (used to increase the amount of work the body does, in order to achieve overload)
Flexibility
The range of movement possible at a joint
Health
A state of complete mental, physical and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity
Health-related exercise
Exercise which is undertaken primarily to improve health and fitness for life
Healthy, active lifestyle
A lifestyle that contributes positively to physical, mental and social well-being, and that includes regular physical activity.
Heart rate
The number of times the heart beats each minute
Individual differences/needs
Matching training to the requirements of an individual
Joint
A place where two or more bones meet
Methods of training
Interval training, continuous training, circuit training, weight training, Fartlek training, cross training.
Muscular endurance
The ability to use voluntary muscles many times without getting tired
Muscular strength
The amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance
Muscle groups
Muscles may be arrange in groups according location and/or function e.g. the muscle of the legs
Oxygen debt
The amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would have ordinarily been consumed in the same time at rest
PAR-Q
Physical activity readiness questionnaire
PEP
Personal exercise program
Performance
How well a task is completed
PESSCL
PE and School Sport Club Links
Physical Activity
Any form of exercise or movement; physical activity may be planned and structured or not.
Power
The ability to do strength performances quickly (power = strength x speed)
Progressive overload
To gradually increase the amount of overload so that fitness gains occur, but without potential injury
Reaction time
The time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement
Recovery
The time required for the repair of damage to the body caused by training or competition
Rehabilitation
Restoring (an injury) to its normal functioning state
Rest
The period of time allotted to recovery
Resistance training
Training that uses a resistance or force against which specific muscle groups must work
Reversibility
Any adaptation that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training
RICE
Rest, ice, compression, elevation
Self-esteem
Respect for, or a favorable opinion of, oneself
Skill-related fitness
Exercise which may be undertaken primarily to improve sporting ability
SMART
Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-bound
Socio-economic status
May be based on a person's income, education, and occupation
Specificity
Matching training to the requirements of an activity
Stroke volume
The volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction
Speed
The differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time
Training
A well-planned program which uses scientific principles to improve performance, skill, game ability and motor and physical fitness
Beta blockers
Drugs that are used to control heart rate and that have a calming and relaxing effect.
Stimulants
Drugs that have an effect on the central nervous system, such as increased mental and/or physical alertness
Underweight
Weight less than normal, healthy or required.
Cholesterol
Cholesterol is blood fat which the body needs in moderate amounts.
Tendons
A tissue that joins muscles to bone
Target zone
The range within which an individual needs to work for aerobic training to take place (60-80 percent of maximum heart rate)
Training thresholds
The boundaries of the target zone
Somatotypes
Classification of body type
Peptide hormones
Drugs that cause the production of other hormones
Overweight
Having weight in excess of normal (not harmful unless accompanies by overfatness)
Optimum Weight
Best weight or desirable weight - the best weight a player performs at
Erythropoietin (EPO)
A type of peptide hormone that increases the red blood cell count.
Obese
A term used to describe people who are very overfat
Overfat
A way of saying you have more body fat than you should have.
Isotonic contraction
Muscle contraction that results in limb movement
Endomorph
A somatotype, individuals with wide hips and narrow shoulders, characterized by fatness
Hypokinetic disease
A disease related to too little activity
Ligaments
A tissue that joins bone to bone
Isometric contractions
Muscle contraction which results in increased tension but the length does not alter, for example, when pressing against a stationary object.
Mesomorph
A somatotype, individuals with wide shoulders and narrow hips, characterized by muscularity
Narcotic analgesics
Drugs that can be used to reduce the feeling of pain
Ectomorph
A somatotype, individuals with narrow shoulder and narrow hips, characterized by thinness
Hypertrophy
Scientific term for an increase in the size of muscle
Diuretics
Drugs that elevate the rate of bodily urine excreton
Anorexic
Pertaining to anorexia; a prolonged eating disorder due to loss of appetite.