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18 terms

Psych 108 Chapter 1 Key Terms

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Cognition
- a variety of higher mental processes such as thinking, perceiving, imagining, speaking, acting and planning.
Cognitive neuroscience
- is a bridging discipline between cognitive science and cognitive psychology on one hand and biology and neuroscience on the other side.
Dualism
- The belief that mind and brain are made up of different kinds of substance.
Dual-aspect theory
- The belief that mind and brain are two levels of description of the same thing
Reductionism
- The belief that mind-based concepts will eventually be replaced by neuroscientific concepts.
Phrenology
- The failed idea that individual differences in cognition can be mapped on to differences in skull shape.
Functional specialization
- Different regions of the brain are specialized for different functions.
Cognitive neuropsychology
-The study of brain-damaged patients to inform theories of normal cognition.
Information Processing
- An approach in which behavior is described in terms of a sequence of cognitive stages.
Interactivity
- Later stages of processing can begin before earlier stages are complete
Top-Down Processing
- The influence of later stages on the processing of earlier ones (e.g. memory influences on perception)
Parallel processing
- Different information is processed at the same time (i.e. in parallel).
Neural network models
- Computational models in which information processing occurs using many interconnected nodes.
Nodes
- The basic units of neural network model that are activated in response to activity in other parts of the network.
Temporal Resolution
- The accuracy with which one can measure when an event (e.g. a physiological change) occurs.
Spatial resolution
- The accuracy with which one can measure where an event (e.g. a physiological change) is occurring.
Modularity
- The notion that certain cognitive processes (or regions of the brain) are restricted in the type of information they process.
Domain specificity
- The idea that a cognitive process is dedicated solely to one particular type of information (e.g. colors, faces, words).