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Human Growth Exam 3 - Lecture 18
Terms in this set (19)
Measures of performance: (2)
o Primarily measuring __ (muscles act across joints)
o Measurement concerns with especially children because for most of us, when told to lift a maximum amount, what we perceive is the max, and what actually is our max are two very different things
Maximum amount of force that can be voluntarily produced by muscles
Coordination: Not totally independent on strength. Ability to activate ..
o Rely more on ..(3)
the right muscles in the right sequence
balance, agility, precision, etc.
Strength measures: Early childhood (3-6)
· Strength increase with ..
· Fat free mass development increases, especially in __
· Girls may be at a disadvantage
age in both genders
Performance measures: Early childhood
· May depend variably on strength, coordination, acceleration, deceleration, precision, etc.
Studies show that:
o Males slightly out preform females
o Females did not .. - may account for gender differences seen
participate in as many ball sports as males
Grip strength and pulling strength:
· Males and females ..
o Males are beginning to get an increase in FFM. Females are not getting boost from __, instead they have __ which deposits fat. Therefore, boys increase in grip strength.
· Keep in mind:
o Depends upon ability of the NS to recruit muscles in the right combinations to generate appropriate torque
o Depends on participants given max efforts
tend to course together until 11-12, at that point they diverge
Strength in biceps, quadriceps
· Males __ and females ..: Bicep strength
· Other studies have shown: Strength is more equal between genders when looking at ..
· Quadriceps: trends seen in males and females?
o However, notice the date of these studies. All in 1950's/60's - girls were not as exposed to athletic training.
increase, slightly plateau
the lower limbs
males increase overtime, females have a slight increase and then a decrease
· Via the flexed-arm hang: How long an individual can hang on pull-up bar (Keep in mind that there would be different results between individuals that have to maintain 90 degree angle at elbow vs. full flexion of elbow)
o Males and females course together initially, both increase in endurance throughout ..
o However, boys at 7 are ..
o Between 12 & 13: Adolescents are reaching growth spurt. Females are having fat deposits because of estrogen. Males are gaining FFM = enhance their performance.
childhood and adolescence
increasing at greater rate
Standing long jump:
o This study was done around early 80's. Not very valid. Women's athletics were mainstream.
o Trend: ..
o Trend seen in females may be due to:
Increases significantly in males, decrease in females
Decrease in females could be due to gain of fat mass
Vertical jump: (Just standing and jumping straight up)
Continued increase an then greater increase after PHV (growth spurt)
steady increase, Plateau after PHV
Throwing for distance:
· Relies more on __ than strength. __ is a factor
· Notice differences in standing start vs. running start
· Force = Mass x Acceleration
· On left side: Time of acceleration is part of measurement. Result:
· On right side: Acceleration is not taken into account. Result:
It is much more difficult for females with increased fat mass to accelerate than male with increased fat free mass.
Hindrance from fat mass does not come into play.
· For the most part ...
· This is more of __ task, hence smaller gender difference
males perform task faster than females.
· Females are significantly more flexible than males. Females joints are more __, because of __. Females are more prone to ..
Ex:See torn ACL etc. more common in females than males.
Balance: Males vs. females
There really isn't significant difference. Males and females course together, males even do better than females in some
Strength and performance:
Longitudinal study (Observing same individuals over time)
· At PHV:
· 50 yard dash, standing long jump, distance throw
o 50-yard dash: Boys increasing from 12-17 and girls are decreasing. Again, this is because females are gaining fat mass.
o Notice that in these 3 tasks, females did not increase at all
o Tasks requiring females to move their body ..
Males begin to improve at a rate greater than females
long distances are hindered at about time of puberty due to fat deposits
Strength vs. PHV in boys
· Point of which velocity of strength acquisition is fastest:
Remember PWV occurs after PHV.
· Rate of strength acquisition is __
· PHV = 0 point
Reach peak after 1 year of PHV.
Performance relative to PHV: Boys
· Arm pull, vertical jump, bent arm hang: Peak increase in performance occurs after ..
o These depend on ..(3)
· Sit and reach, shuttle run, plate tapping (two spots on table, touch one and then the other as fast as you can and as many times as you can - looking at speed of very small movements): Notice peak is ..
o Depend more on ..(3) These types tend to show peak velocities prior to PHV
1 year of PHV
strength, force, endurance
prior to PHV
flexibility, agility and coordination.
Changes in motor performance using sexual maturation as an indicator:
· Age at menarche = point 0
· 50-yard dash: After menarche, average times tend to __. Times tend to get ..
· Standing long jump:
· However, notice data was published in 1940's, so it was collected in 1940s. Athletics were not mainstream for women.
· __ and __ not affected as much
worse because they are gaining fat mass.
Distance decreases significantly for the same reason.
Distance and throw
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