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Membrane bound sac around the head of a sperm
-bag of enzymes that digest its way around the egg so it can get in
1. gametogenisis- production of gametes(sperm & ~egg)
2. endocrine: MALE: testosterone FEMALE: Progesterone & Estradiol (estrogen)
-1% of children
-when the scrotum doesnt drop out and stay in the kidney area
-CANNOT create sperm here
-more likely to get testicular cancer
-hormone production can still occur
tissue within the testis
-they are looped in a messy fashion
-they have 2 ends and open up to top clear spaces structure(Rete testis)
like an extention to the seminiferous tubules
-has head(Caput), body(), and tail(Cauda)
-sperm takes 1-2 weeks to travel from head to tail
-absorbtion of fluids here
-secretion of exocrine
What happens if you tie off tubules?
-testis expand to 3x normal size
-creates a back pressure of fluids » the pressure will eventually stop sperm production » testis will shrink to 1/3 of its original size
connects rete testis and Caput epididymus
-absorb fluid (70-90%) thickness
-vas deferens are tied off
-dont get build up pressure
-the sperm is instead reabsorbed into body through caput epdidymus
accessory sex organs require ______?
all require testosterone or else will not function or maintain
Fetal testis charecteristics
-enormous embryonic cells (not temperature sensitive) dispersed throughout
-doesnt have lumen
-testis is called a sex cord
-The 'enormous embryonic cells' can be called: 1. Gonocytes 2. premordiol cells 3. pre-spermatogonia
embryonic cells at puberty:
they divide and form smaller cells
-they are now referred to as spermatogonia and are always found on the outer rimof the testis
Intermediate spermatogonia (In)
-5th generation in sperm development
at A4 division, nucleous starts to look different
[2N] [Meiosis] 
- 7th generation in sperm development/ forms after 6th division
[N] [Meiosis] 
-8th generation in sperm development/ forms after 7th division
-these are only around for a few hours!!
-goes on to "Reduction Division"
[N] [Meiosis] 
-9th generation in sperm development/ forms after reduction divsion
When the speramtids transform from simple cells looking to resembliing an actual sperm
(theory explaining how you get a continuous production of sperm)
STEM CELL RENEWAL
"Only 7/8 goes from A4 generation to In generation, the other 1/8 goes back to being A1 generation"
when one cell divideds you get complete division of the nucleous, but only partial division of the cytoplasm
Cell differentiation between the boundary tissue and the lumen
there will be 4 layers
-the outside layer is always going to be Spermatogonia
-the next layer medialy will always be Spermatocytes
-the next layer medialy to that will either be spermatocytes OR spermatids
-the last layer next to the lumen will always be Spermatids
2. Seminiferous tubules
3. Rete Testis
5. Vasa Efferenta
6. Caput epididymus
7. Corpus epididymus
8. Cauda epididymus
Ways to stop sperm production
2. Vitamin deficiency
3. Efferent duct ligation (EDL)
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