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French Revolution, Napoleon and Congress of Vienna
Study Guide Unit 3
Terms in this set (57)
Created by the Monarchy in the Middle Ages, and then taken out by the French Revolution. The Old Regime was when the society had the 3 estates, 1-clergy 2-nobles 3-commoners/peasants, and the rest of the people. Allowed the "divine right" and was mainly found in absolute monarchy., A combination of the absolute monarchy and feudalism in France
One of the three social classes in France before the French Revolution - The first estate was made up of clergy of Roman Catholic Church. The second estate made up of rich nobles. The third estate was the lower class and peasant farmers
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime. (An assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France)
Tennis Court Oath
Declaration mainly by members of the Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789); this was the first deliberate act of the revolution (treason)
A French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people.
1789 - the rumors of noble attacks on towns and the government taking peasant crops; led to peasants burning manor records, staling grain, (A wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille)
Declaration of the Rights of Man
A document drafted by the National Assembly promising all men their natural rights and the freedom of expression. No mechanism to enforce these rights, (French Revolution document that outlined what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people and the rights that they possessed as citizens)
A French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791.
A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
Committee of Public Safety
A 12 member group, chaired by Maximilien Robespierre, to which the National Convention gave dictatorial powers in April 1793 in an attempt to deal with France's wars abroad and economic problems at home. Although the committee led off its tenure with an impressive war effort and economy-salvaging initiatives, things took a turn for the worse when Robespierre began his violent Reign of Terror in late 1793.,conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.
A sudden, forceful move in politics, especially the sudden, forcible overthrow of the government.
A direct vote of all the people of a country or district on an important matter; a referendum
government run public schools
A formal agreement between the Napoleon's French government and Pope Pius VII. It stated that even though Christianity was the biggest religion, it allowed all other protestants to freely worship their religion.
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy
Battle of Trafalgar
(1805) British Admiral Horatio Nelson destroys French and Spanish fleets, but then dies. British do not lose any ships. Ends all French hopes of invading Britain and guarantees British control of the sea for the rest of the war.
Forced closing of ports to prevent trade and communication between countries. Important because in the early 1800s, France and Britain blockaded each other, which choked France's supply of goods.
1806-1807, attempted to prevent British goods from reaching European continent in order to weaken British economically and destroy its capacity to wage war; allied states resented French economic gain and cheated, helped Britain.
During the French Revolution, bands of Spanish peasant fighters struck at French armies in Spain. The type of strategy they use was not one that could be defeated in open battle. Their tactics consisted of ambush and immediately fleeing into hiding.
A conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish Rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleons French troops out of Spain. This war was the beginning of the end of Napoleon's Grand Empire.
scorched earth policy
Destroying crops and livestock so that one's enemy has nothing to use for food as they invade. Used by the Russians when Napoleon invaded in 1812.
Congress of Vienna
(1814) meeting of Napoleon's victors to devise a stable territorial arrangement: Austria, Britain, Russia, Prussia and France. Restored France to 1790 boundaries and divided up the remaining land to create a Europe that was consolidated mostly into countries with balanced power. Ensure balance of power and protect each other from aggression from the others. Austria and Britain allied to restrain ambitions of Russia and Prussia.
Balance of Power
A strategy to maintain an equilibrium, in which weak countries join together to match or exceed the power of a stronger country. It was one of the guiding principles of the Congress of Vienna
As many as possible of the rulers that Napoleon had removed from the throne were restored to power. This was so that the former monarchs could hopefully return positive political relations to the European countries.
Alliance among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of religion and the established order; formed at Congress of Vienna by most conservative monarchies of Europe., 1815 agreement promoted by Czar Alexander I, by which most European powers promised to uphold Christian virtues like peace and charity. Only Britain, Turkey, and the Pope refused to join the Holy Alliance. However, few took the agreement very seriously.
Concert of Europe
A series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions, 1815-1848
In the very beginning of the French Revolution how did the peasants respond to the guards after having no bread to eat?
First, they demanded that the national assembly take action to provide bread. Then they turned their anger on the king and queen. They broke into the palace, killing some of the guards.
Describe the major contributions or causes that led to the French Revolution. Why did it happen?
Inequality between estates. Nobles and clergy (first and second estates) didn't have to pay taxes and would outvote the 3rd Estate, so they held all the power.
The Third Estate (bourgeousie, peasants, artisans) were pretty unhappy with this arrangement.
Economics. Louis XIV was an extravagent spender, and subsequent kings did little to fix the financial problems, until the government was nearly bankrupt. The lower classes felt this the worst.
Enlightenment Ideology. Enlightenment writers like Rousseau and Voltaire influenced the french people. Enlightenement writings discussed the role of government, the rights of the people, the social contract, and when people have a right to rebel. They were also inspired by the American Revolution (which they helped us with, and expected us to return the favor, although we didn't meet their expectations).
Hungry Parisians storm the Bastille prison. (Bastille day).
The French society was divided into three estates , the first two consisted of clergy and nobility respectively, the third estate consisted of merchants, businessmen, lawyers and peasants.Third estate didn't had equal rights and the other estates enjoyed other privileges.
third estate had to pay all the taxes imposed by the king as the other estates were exempted from it.The prices of bread rose which was the main staple diet of the people and there was subsistence crisis.
Rumors spread that the king will order his troops to attack Paris ( as people were revolting) and then 4000- 5000 people gathered and formed people's militia.
What were some of the long term and short term causes that led to the downfall of the Old Regime?
Long term- weak leadership, debts from the war
Short term- Assembly of the Estates-Generals, Rumors spread that the king will order his troops to attack Paris
The people from the third estate who could participate in politics but not do what?
they could not, not pay taxes
Most of the people in the Third estate were
either bourgeoisies or peasants which was 97% of 26 million, 80% were peasants
The first and second estates were made up of?
Former: Made up of clergy. Rich were higher up and stemmed from aristocratic families and the poor were parosh priests. 130,000 people. Latter: Nobility. Divided into nobles of the robe and of the sword. The first was through gaining an office and the second is through family line. Took part in mining or metallurgical practices by owning or investing. Had most postitions in military, church, and government. Both Estates exempt from taille but clergy agreed to give a contribution every five years.
Give four reasons for the Causes of the French Revolution?
Political and Social Inequalities
France still practised feudalism in the 18th century. The nobles and clergy enjoyed special privileges. They did not have to pay taxes. The common people did not have power and freedom in politics. They worked hard and had to pay heavy taxes. The nobles and clergy made up the First and Second Estates in the Estates General. The common people (i.e. the middle class (bourgeoisie), peasants and artisans) made up the Third Estate. The nobles and clergy could outvote the common people easily though the Estates General was always not called by the king, who ruled as an absolute monarch. The common people became discontented with the privileged classes.
Bankruptcy of the Government
Louis XIV had spent too much. His successors did not cut down expenses. Louis XVI also failed to improve the financial situation. He dismissed ministers who tried to introduce financial reforms. By 1789, the government was bankrupt.
Influence of the Enlightenment and the American Revolution
The ideas and writings of Enlightenment thinkers like Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau became widespread. The French people were inspired to go against their king.
The suucess of the Americans to overthrow British rule encouraged the French to fight for their freedom.
Outbreak of revolution 1789
When Louis XVI finally called the Estates General to solve financial difficulties, the Third Estate did not agree with the unfair system of the Estates General. They formed the National Assembly to make a constitution. People were afraid that the king would suppress the National Assembly. They were also discontented that the king dismissed Necker, the popular Finance Minister. The hungry Parisians, who suffered from bad harvest, burst out their anger by attacking the Bastille prison (for political prisoners). The Fall of Bastille started the French Revolution. It spread out to other parts of France.
What kind of leader was Louis XVI? Why?
bad- Louis sent a fleet to help the American Revolutionaries, followed by an expeditionary force. A lot of money was spent on supporting the American Revolutionary War, but it brought no material advantages to France, and French finances were in ruins by the end of the war.
The members of the Third Estate wanted more say in the government of the country, and demanded that the parliament be reformed on more eglaitarin lines. When Louis tried to annul the decisions made by the parliament, it made him very unpopular and precipitated the French revolution.
At first the leaders of the revolution set up a constitutional monarchy, and louis was still king of France, though he no longer had absolute power. However, he was unable to adapt to the changes brought about by the revolution, and eventually tried to escape from France with his family. Unfortunately, he bungled his escape plan, the family left Paris in an ostentatiously grand coach and were easily spotted.
Louis started a war with Austria and Prussia, who had formed a powerful alliance and were seen as a threat. The war was surprisignly popular with the Jacobin (extremis revolutionary leaders) but the war did not go well.
Louis seems to have been a man who was caught up in political events that were too complex for him to deal with. He was out of his depth. he was essentialy a simple man, whose greatest pleasures in life were hunting and manual work, especially locksmithing. he could not deal with the world of turmoil in which he found himself.
Analyze the event of the Congress of Vienna. Was this fair to France? Was this good for Europe as a whole?
- the former Austrian Netherlands and Dutch Republic were united to form the kingdom of the Netherlands
- a group of 39th German states were loosely joined the newly-created German Confederation, dominated by Austria
- Switzerland was recognized as an independent nation
- the kingdom of Sardina in Italy was strengthened by the addition of Genoa
Yes, it wasn't as powerful as before but there was hardly any repercussions
Yes it kept Europe as a whole in peace for the longest amount of time
How does the Congress of Vienna compare with the wishes of the revolutionaries of France?
The congress of Vienna gave the people of France what they wanted in the first place which was a constitutional monarchy
Why would the French people not care for Marie Antoinette?
Marie Antoinette had the reputation to spend lavishly on her dresses, jewels, perfumes, or on her leisure. Public opinion criticizes her taste for lavish parties.
Put the following in chronological order: National Assembly, Legislative Assembly, Robespierre, Constitutional Monarchy, Estates-General/King Louis XVI, Napoleon/Directory, Congress of Vienna & Old Regime.
Old Regime, Estates-General/King Louis XVI, National Assembly, Legislative Assembly, Robespierre, Napoleon/Directory, Constitutional Monarchy
What was the significance of storming the Bastille? How does it relate to American history?
July 14th, 1789. There had been a rumor that the king had been planning a military coup against the national Assembly. The people decided to defend their city and marched to the Bastille prison for gunpowder. The governor of the prison refused them, so they fought until the prison surrendered. This saved the National Assembly. Is now called the "Bastille Day" and is France's Independence Day.
Who did the Declaration of the Rights of Man Leave out?
Who was Olympe de Gouges? How and why did she die?
writer of a declaration of women's rights in 1793; her ideas were rejected and she was later declared an enemy of the Revolution and executed
How did the State-controlled Church offend the peasants?
They believed that the pope should rule over a church independent of the state
What was the big difference between the Legislative Assembly and the National Assembly? How did this effect King Louis?
The Ligislative Assembly came to be dominated by the Jacobins,a radical group that wanted a republic and that wanted to execute the king,as they regraded him as untrustworthy.
The National Assembly had been in favour of a Constitutional Monarchy.
The effect on King Louis was that the National Assembly would have left him alive,still as king,albeit with limited powers.
The Legislative Assembly wanted to do away with a king altogether, and execute Louis XVI.
What radical group was responsible for executing King Louis XVI?
What was Robespierre's belief about Kings? What kind of ruler was he? What did he consider "safe" for France?
How was Napoleon good or bad for France as a leader?
What are some arguments that one could make on either side of Napoleon's leadership and course of actions during his reign of France?
What event led Napoleon to be the Hero of the Hour?
Who helped Napoleon gain power and how?
How did Napoleon deceive France? Give two examples?
List three good things Napoleon did for France.
Who did Napoleon always loose to? Where was he from?
Give the 3 costly mistakes Napoleon made and what were the costs?
How many times was Napoleon exiled?
What was Waterloo?
After Napoleon escaped from Elba, he arrived in France on March 1st, 1815, became emperor, and the British prepared for battle. Led by the Duke of Wellington of Belgium, Napoleon attacked on June 18th, 1815. British and Prussian forces countered and won. Napoleon was defeated and exiled to St. Helena.
How did Metternich of Austria help Europe's problems?
What were Metternich's solutions?
to prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries, restore a balance of power - no country would be a threat to other, restore Europe's royal families to the thrones they had held before Napoleon's conquests
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