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Pharmacology Chapter 28 - Diuretics
Terms in this set (46)
furosemide (Lasix) is what specific kind of diuretic?
Loop diuretics increase renal prostaglandins, resulting in ____ of the blood vessels, and _____ peripheral vascular resistance.
Loop diuretics are useful in the treatment of ____.
Decreased fluid volume reduces blood pressure. (T/F)
resistance is reduced
How does decreased fluid volume effect pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance.
Decreased fluid volume does not effect central venous pressure or left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. (T/F)
Loop diuretics result in the depletion of what electrolytes? (2)
Loop diuretics are used to control ___ associated with HF or hepatic/renal disease. Also used to control ____.
3.5 to 5.3 (units)
What is a normal range of potassium in the body?
What is a normal range of sodium in the body?
dizzy, headache, tinnitus, blurry vision
List four adverse CNS effects of loop diuretics
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
List three adverse GI effects of loop diuretics
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (torsemide)
List an adverse integumentary effect of loop diuretics
List three adverse metabolic effects of loop diuretics
uric acid, glucose
Loop diuretics can increase serum levels of what in the blood? (2)
Loop diuretics do not interfere with NSAIDs (T/F)
patients with reduced creatinine clearance are not advised to use loop diuretics like furosemide (Lasix). (T/F)
mannitol (Osmitrol) is the most commonly used ____ diuretic.
tubular resorption of water
mannitol (Osmitrol) produces rapid diuresis by inhibiting ___.
mannitol (Osmitrol) is used in patients with ___ edema.
mannitol (Osmitrol) aids in the reduction of excessive ___ pressure.
List three adverse effects of osmotic diuretics.
osmotic diuretics are administered only by ___.
they can crystallize at low temperatures and must be administered with a filter needle.
explain why osmotic diuretics need to be temperature controlled and list any special administration techniques.
While preparing an infusion of mannitol (Osmitrol), the nurse notices small crystals in the IV tubing. The most appropriate action by the nurse is to:
A: administer slowly
B: discard solution, obtain another bag of medication
C: obtain filter, infuse solution
D: return fluid to IV bag to dissolve crystals
Spironolactone (Aldactone) is an example of what kind of diuretic
Patients with hyperaldosteronism and hypertension are indications for the use of potassium-sparing diuretics. (T/F)
Which potassium sparing medicationcan cause gynecomastia in males and several period problems in females.
sodium, chloride (to a lesser extent, potassium as well)
What two electrolytes are expelled with water in thiazide diuretics?
thiazides lower ___ vascular resistance.
true (normal clearance is 125 mL/min)
thiazides should not be used if a patient's creatinine clearance is lower than 30-50 mL/min.
what specific genitourinary adverse effect do thiazides cause that are uncommon in other diuretics?
what hematologic adverse effects can occur while taking thiazides? (2)
Thiazides should be taken at night due to drowsiness as side effects. (T/F)
Patients taking thiazides should eat foods rich in what?
Diabetic patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics should monitor blood glucose for ____ levels.
thiazides and licorice can result in what adverse effect?
A patient with a creatinine clearance of 20 mL/min is admitted to the med-surg unit. The patient is in need of rapid diuresis. Which class of diuretic does the nurse anticipate administering?
The patient is ordered furosemide (Lasix). Before administering furosemide, it is important for the nurse to assess the patient for allergies to which drug class?
Two days after admission, the nruse is reviewing lab results of the patient. Which is the most common electrolyte finding resulting from the administration of furosemide (Lasix)?
A discharged patient for furosemide is being taught which of the following?
A. Avoid prolonged exposure to sun
B. Avoid foods high in potassium
C. Stop taking the medication if dizzy
D. Weigh yourself once a week and report a gain or loss of 1 or more pounds.
The nurse plans to closely monitor for which clinical manifestation after administering furosemide (Lasix)
A. decreased pulse
B. decreased temp
C. decreased BP
D. decreased resp. rate
The nurse should monitor for which adverse effect after administering hydrochlorothiazide and digoxin to a patient?
A. Dig toxicity
B. decreased diuretic effect
D. Heart failure
The nurse is caring for a patient with HF who needs a diuretic. Which agent is likely to be chosen, because it was been shown to greatly reduce mortality in patients with heart failure?
A. furosemide (Lasix)
B. hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL)
C. spirinolactone (Aldactone)
D. mannitol (Osmitrol)
The nurse caring for a patient on furosemide (Lasix) is reviewing the patient's most recent lab results:
blood urea nitrogen 15
What is the nurses best action?
A. administer lasix
B. place patient on cardiac monitor
C. Begin 24-hour urine collection
D. hold lasix, notify provider
The nurse is teaching a patient who has a new prescription for spironolactone (Aldactone). Which statement by the patient indicates that the teaching was effective?
A. I will use salt substitutes to lower sodium intake.
B. I will increased my intake of potassium rich foods,
C. I will call my doctor if I begin having irregular menstrual patterns.
D. I will take this medication at bedtime each evening.
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