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Ch. 23 Assessment
Terms in this set (40)
How do each of the following affect the level of oxyhemoglobin?
Decreases Oxyhemoglobin Levels:
Increases Oxyhemoglobin Levels:
Check all that are a function of the Hering-Breur reflex.
-Prevent overinflation of the lungs in adults
-Regulate the basic rhythm of breathing in infantsRegulate
-Prevent overinflation of the lungs in infants
The alveoli never attain equal pressure with the ambient (outside) air.
1. When hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen, it readily takes up carbon dioxide molecules.
2. In the chloride shift, HCO3- is exchanged for Cl-
3. HCO3- joins with H+ to form carbonic acid.
4. The release of hydrogen ions from hemoglobin results in an uptake of oxygen by hemoglobin.
When partial pressures for a given gas are equal between the capillaries and the tissue fluids, no net movement of that gas occurs.
Gasses diffuse because of differences in partial pressures from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure.
Select the correct word from the list to complete each sentence
1. Carbon dioxide diffuses into red blood cells and plasma in the .
2.Carbon dioxide diffuses out of red blood cells and plasma in the .
3.In the , HCO3- is exchanged with Cl- in the red blood cells in order to maintain electrical neutrality.
4.The occurs in the lungs, when hemoglobin that is bound to oxygen is less able to bind with carbon dioxide.
5.In the tissues, hemoglobin oxygen.
6.When hemoglobin releases oxygen, it is able to bind with carbon dioxide.
3. chloride shift
4. Haldane effect
1. Volume of air inspired or expired with each breath
2. Amount of air that can be inspired forcefully after normal inspiration
3. Amount of air that can be forcefully expired after normal exhalation
4. Volume of air in the lungs after forceful expiration
1. tidal volume
2. inspiratory reserve volume
3. expiratory reserve volume
4. residual volume
1. At the onset of a bout of exercise, tissue levels briefly increase due to elevated aerobic respiration.
2. Carbon dioxide production in respiring tissues creates an increased level of carbonic acid in the blood, resulting in a blood pH.
3. Altered blood pH during exercise causes the affinity of hemoglobin to decrease, which is seen as a shift in the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve.
4. As a result, blood arriving at the respiring tissues will deliver a/an amount of oxygen.
1. carbon dioxide
Check all that decrease as a result of aging.
-maximum ventilation rate
Place each of the following conditions in the proper category to predict whether the delivery of oxygen would be increased or decreased.
Increased Oxygen Delivery to Tissues:
-Right shift in the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve
-decreased blood pH
Decreased Oxygen Delivery:
-carbon monooxide binding to heme
-Tissue PO2 of 60 mmHg
-Tissue PCO2 of 43 mm Hg
-Alveolar PO2 of 86 mmHg
Select all that are functions of the respiratory system.
-regulation of blood pH
-Protection from microorganisms
-production of chemical mediators
Which of the following structures is part of the respiratory system? Select all that apply.
Place each label to indicate the muscular activation required to produce the designated volume.
1. Measures the ease with which the lungs and thorax expand
2.Total amount of air moved into and out of the lungs each minute
3. Number of breaths taken each minute
2. Minute respiration
3. Respiratory rate
1. Gases move from an area of lower concentration to higher concentration.
2. Daltons law states that the total pressure of a gas is the sum of pressures of each gas.
3. If a single gas represents 60% of the total gas, its partial pressure will be 60% of the total pressure.
4. If the concentration of oxygen in the alveoli is greater than the concentration of oxygen in the blood, oxygen will diffuse out of the blood.
5. Typically, carbon dioxide concentrations are higher in the blood than in the alveoli, so carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood to the alveoli.
1. The tendency for an expanded lung to decrease in size due to elastic fibers
2. Water molecules being attracted to other water molecules due to their chemistry (oppositely charged ends of the molecules)
3. Mixture of lipoprotein molecules produced by secretory cells of the alveolar epithelium to prevent alveoli from collapsing
1. Lung recoil
2. surface tension
Which of the following events increase respiration and which decrease respiration?
-activation of irritant receptors in the airway
-Stimulation of stretch receptors in the lungs
-a decrease in pH pf the CSF
-Stimulation of proprioceptors in skeletal muscles
-Stimulation of the dorsal respiratory group
-stimulation of pain receptors
1. Internal intercostals:
2. External intercostals:
4. Abdominal muscles:
1. contract during expiration
2. contract during inspiration
3. contract during inspiration
4. contract during expiration
1. A hemoglobin molecule is 100% saturated with oxygen when four oxygen molecules are bound to it.
2. 75% of the oxygen bound to hemoglobin serves as an oxygen reserve.
3. A relatively small change in oxygen concentration in the tissues causes a large change in hemoglobin saturation concentrations.
4. When oxygen levels decrease in the tissues, hemoglobin releases fewer oxygen molecules.
The amount of air that is moved between the atmosphere and alveoli in one minute is . The normal adult breathes approximately mL per breath (tidal volume), and this occurs about times per minute. The amount of air taken in during 1 minute is and is calculated using the following formula: . The amount of air that reaches the alveoli and is available for gas exchange per minute is termed . This is calculated using the following mathematical formula:
tidal volume × respiration rate
tidal volume - anatomic dead space × respiration rate
The two mechanisms used to prevent food from entering the larynx are
-closure of the glottis.
-tipping of epiglottis over glottis.
1. When your bodys temperature increases, more oxygen is released from hemoglobin.
2. When carbon dioxide levels increase at the tissue capillaries, blood pH decreases.
3. An increase in blood carbon dioxide levels results in an increase in hemoglobins affinity for oxygen.
4. When carbon dioxide leaves the blood at the pulmonary capillaries, pH levels decrease.
The main stimulus that drives increased breathing during exercise is a drop in blood levels of oxygen.
1. An increase in lung volume causes a decrease in pleural pressure.
2. Pleural pressure decreases as lungs expand due to the lungs tendency to recoil.
3. Pleural pressure decreases during expiration as thoracic volume decreases.
4. As thoracic volume decreases, pleural pressure increases.
Match the histological descriptions with the correct segment of airway.
Nasopharynx, trachea, bronchi: Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium
Bronchioles: Simple columnar epithelium
Stratified squamous epithelium: Vestibule, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Terminal bronchioles: Simple cuboidal epithelium
Fetal hemoglobin has a lower affinity for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin does.
Assign the following feature or functions to the appropriate anatomical region.
1. Tidal volume plus Inspiratory reserve volum
2. Expiratory reserve volume plus the residual volume
3. Sum of Inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume
4. Sum of all of the pulmonary volumes
1. inspiratory capacity
2. functional residual capacity
3. vital capacity
4. total lung capacity
Correctly label the components of the upper respiratory tract.
1. The cerebral cortex is only involved in unconscious control of respiration.
2. Emotions can affect respiration via the limbic system
3. Voluntary hyperventilation results in decreased blood flow to the brain
4. Apnea is the absence of breathing, either voluntarily or involuntarily
The composition of alveolar air differs from atmospheric air. Indicate all of the factors that account for this difference.
-Presence of water vapor
-Additional carbon dioxide due to gas exchange
-Less oxygen due to gas exchange
1. The majority of CO₂ in the blood is carried as
2. The ability of CO₂ to bind to deoxygenated hemoglobin more readily than it binds oxyhemoglobin is referred to as the effect.
3. The is an anion exchange that takes place in red blood cells as a mechanism to transport bicarbonate ion out of the cell.
4. The combination of carbon dioxide and protein known as is abbreviated HbCO₂.
5. The decrease in the ability of oxygen to bind to hemoglobin when the pH decreases is known as the effect.
6. The reaction between CO2 and H2O to form H2CO3 is catalyzed by
7. Less than 10% of CO₂ is transported as .
1. bicarbonate ion
3. chloride shift
6. carbonic anhydrase
7. dissolved gas
1. The respiratory tract is a passageway forair between the external environment and the . (air sacs) of the lungs.
2. There are two gases that are exchanged during respiration. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli while the other gas, , diffuses from the alveoli into the blood.
3. Receptors located in the superior regions of the nasal cavity called receptors detect odors as air moves across them.
4. The vocal cords of the (voicebox) vibrate as air moves across them to produce sound. Sounds then resonate in upper respiratory structures.
1. Visible structure on the face
2. Extends from the nares to the choanae
3. Common opening for digestive and respiratory systems
4. Located posterior to the choanae and superior to the soft palate
5. Extends from the soft palate to the epiglottis
6. Extends from the tip of the epiglottis to the esophagus
7. Passageway for air; extends from the base of the tongue to the trachea
8. Windpipe; membranous tube attached to the larynx
9. Large, conical-shaped organs of respiration
10. Small, air-filled chambers for where gas exchange takes place
1. external nose
2. nasal cavity
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is caused by a long-term obstruction of airflow, which decreases pulmonary ventilation. Two major COPDs are emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Indicate in which COPD each variable below would be increased or decreased.
Indicate whether contraction of each muscle plays a part in either an increase in thoracic volume or a decrease in thoracic volume.
1. Ventilation increases gradually at the start of exercise.
2. Movement of skeletal muscles has a stimulatory effect on respiration.
3. The highest level of exercise that can occur without causing a change in blood pH is called the anaerobic threshold
4. Changes in blood gases and blood pH are largely responsible for increasing ventilation during aerobic exercise.
Apnea is the slowing of respiration as occurs during sleep.
Label the respiratory areas.
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