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Dr. Fattor History of political thought final
Terms in this set (135)
What musical instrument does Socrates argue must be banned because it is poor substitute for stringed instruments at around 399d?
Who said Socrates was the wisest man in Athens in the "Apology"?
Oracle of Delphi
As Socrates goes and questions the "wise men" of Athens in "Apology", what does he ultimately conclude?
That none of them are wise
What is the name of the prosecutor Socrates has a brief conversation with during the "Apology"?
Why, according to Socrates, does he not formally participate in politics?
He would already have been silenced by the powerful elite if he behaved the same way in office as he does as a private citizen
After being sentenced to death, Socrates is offered a chance to suggest an alternative punishment. Ultimately, he suggests a fine of 3000 drachmae, but before this, what punishment does he suggest?
Free food at the Prytaneum
Socrates argues he is not afraid of death in the Apology because death is which of the following?
Note: There are two correct answers here so please make two marks
1.A long dreamless sleep
2.A chance for him to question the great heroes personages of the past
Which of the following "bumper sticker" statements best captures the spirit of Socrates in the Apology?
Assuming there is an afterlife, what is Socrates, by his own admission, most likely to be doing there?
Relentlessly questioning the famous heroes of history
One of the lessons of the Apology and of the Socratic Method more generally is that being the best person you can be requires which of the following?
A lifetime of overcoming obstacles and rising up to challenges
The text that Bill reads at 0:38 corresponds to which line from the "Apology"?
For I am not conscious to myself that I am wise, either much or little.
What is the conception of justice argued by Thrasymachus in Book I of the Republic?
Justice is doing that which benefits the strong and the powerful
In Book II of Republic, Adeimantus makes the following remark:
"Therefore, since appearance, as the wise men tell me, forcibly overwhelms truth and controls happiness, this is altogether the way I should live. I should build around me a façade that gives the illusion of justice to those who approach me and keep behind this greedy and crafty fox of the wine of Archilochus" (365c/d)
What is Adeimantus trying to argue here with regards to the discussion of justice?
It is better to appear to be just than to actually live a just life
Which of the following passages best expresses Socrates' notion of justice by the end of Book III?
"Interference by the three classes with each other's jobs, and interchange of jobs between them, therefore, does the greatest harm to our state, and it is entirely appropriate to call it the worst of evils" (434c)
What is the "noble lie" Socrates refers to at the end of Book III?
That even though humans are born equal, some of them are naturally superior and have "gold" or "silver" in their blood
Which form of government does Socrates identify as the best form of government at the end of Book IV?
How does this scene conform to Plato's ideas about the role of women in the Guardian class?
It shows how women can be capable soldiers, but because they are the "weaker sex," they will never be as good as male solders
Why would the problem represented in this opening sequence from the film Idiocracy not be a problem in Plato's Republic?
Frequent "mating festivals" will be held among the Guardians guaranteeing there will always be sufficient children groomed for leadership
At around 469 of the Republic, Socrates and his cohorts begin to discuss slavery. Which group, according to Socrates, should not be forced into slavery if they are defeated in battle?
The ultimate source of all ideas according to Plato is which of the following?
Match the mode of perception from Plato's description of the Divided Line with the object that mode of perception apprehends. (1 point per correct answer)
1. Imagination = images, shadows, reflections
2. Belief = Physical objects
3. Dialectic= Forms (Truth, Beauty, Justice, Right)
Neo taking the red pill in this scene from The Matrix is akin to which myth/metaphor in The Republic?
Which of the following subject would NOT be part of the philosopher-king's course of study as discussed in Book VII?
Match the various forms of government discussed by Plato in Books VIII and IX of the Republic with the best description (1 point for each correct match):
1. A form of rule where the guardians rule well but are nevertheless estranged from the masses, similar to the situation in Sparta = Timarchy/ Timocracy
2. A form of government where the wealthy and rich rule and the pursuit of profit is the animating spirit of the society = Oligarchy
3. A form of government where the masses rule and the animating spirit of the society is individual liberty = Democracy
4. A form of rule by a criminal or "strong-man" who gains power by promising to restore order and end corruption= Tyranny
5. A government ruled by the best. The ideal form of government according to Plato = Monarchy/ Aristocracy
Which of the following best summarizes Plato's view of democracy?
It's one of the worst forms of government because it allows the least wise and least intelligent to rule
What life does Odysseus choose in the myth of Er at the very end of Book X of The Republic?
Which of the following American political rules and institutions might be evidence that the founders of the United States agreed in part with Plato's view of democracy?
The Electoral College
Which of the following is NOT one of the Platonic virtues?
The highest science according to Aristotle is which of the following?
In the list below, click the box next to all the mean virtues. There are four total correct answers.
In accusing him of failing to act in the face of a threat, Henri Ducard (Liam Neeson) is saying Bruce Wayne's billionaire father is guilty of which deficiency of virtue according to Aristotle?
Match the mean virtue with the correct corresponding excess:
Rashness = Courage
Irascibility = Patience
Buffoonery. = Witty
Shyness. = Modesty
True or False: Aristotle argued slavery was morally wrong
For Aristotle, democracy was rule by whom?
What was the name given by Aristotle to the healthy form of monarchical rule?
According to Aristotle, the most stable form of rule that is least likely to create conditions for revolution is which of the following?
What human faculty, according to Cicero, allows humans to determine what is natural law?
According to Cicero, the virtuous person seeks public office for which of the following reasons?
Duty and Obligation
According to Cicero, the Roman constitution took which form?
According to Cicero, the legitimacy of the state is not rooted in the power of a particular faction, but in which of the following?
What was the name of the officers who represented the people in the ancient Roman constitution?
Which philosophy discussed in class does this movie clip from the film "Gladiator" represent?
Beauty and happiness for Marcus Aurelius can be found in which of the following?
Imagine you have a group project due in one of you're classes. Unfortunately, the members of your group are very difficult to deal with. A few never show up to meetings and don't care, some are free riding on your hard work, and those that are active are constantly pitching bad ideas. How would Marcus Aurelius advise you on this situation?
Endure the shortcomings of your teammates as best you can and finish the project
What parts of the world do individual human beings have control over according to Marcus Aurelius?
Their own thoughts and actions--and not much else
"Remember how long thou hast been putting off these things, and how often thou hast received an opportunity from the gods, and yet dost not use it. Thou must now at last perceive of what universe thou art a part, and of what administrator of the universe thy existence is an efflux...(fluctuation)"
Mediations, Book II, Paragraph 4.
According to this passage, what is an individual' s most precious resource?
In this scene from the movie "Agora," the sacking of the Roman library by the Christian mob represents what important transition taking place in Augustine's time?
The transition from the rule of Rome to the dominance of Christianity
Why might Augustine agree with the advice given by the Roman consul at the end of this scene from the film Ben Hur?
Because the best one can do in this earthly life is endure until one is rewarded in heaven after death
What was Augustine's view of slavery?
Slavery is sinful and wrong, but slaves should not seek their emancipation. Instead, they should keep their faith and await their reward in the afterlife.
Imagine that you read in the Collegian that CSU president Joyce McConnell, in her first act as president, will use all the tuition funds paid by students in the current academic year to build a giant statue of herself in the middle of the plaza. As an angry student, what is the best course of action to this outrage according to Augustine?
Express your outrage in public, but realize that in a sinful world such as this, tyrants and evildoers usually go unpunished
Why are virtues important for Augustine?
They indicate how God wishes us to live, and show how a better life awaits us in the hereafter
Match Aquinas' differing notions of law with the best definition or description
1. Human law= the law drafted by humans to regulate human behavior
2. Eternal law= the laws that govern the material and moral reality of angels and heaven.
3.Divine Law= The source of all other forms of law
4. Natural Law= The laws of the universe knowable through reason
When is sedition and revolution permitted according to Aquinas?
To topple tyrants
How might Aquinas see the billionaires of present-day society?
He would condemn them because "He who spends too much is a robber"
Who was "The Philosopher" that Aquinas often referred to?
Which of the following is Machiavelli's definition of a composite or mixed principality?
A principality where a new ruler attempts to govern a newly acquired city
What does Machaivelli have to say about kingdoms in France with regards to their ability to be conquered and held?
They are easy to conquer but hard to hold
According to Machiavelli, a prince that possess "virtu" will do which of the following?
Show cunning abilities and take full advantage of opportunities
Which of the following are the worst type of fighters to defend a city according to Machiavelli?
Foreign born professional mercenaries
In Chapter XIV of "The Prince," what kinds of books does Machiavelli say should a prudent prince read in his spare time?
Books of history celebrating great military heroes and their successes on the battlefield
What is Machiavelli's approach to the use of cruelty by a prince?
It should be used tactically at the start of a prince's reign, but then slowly removed
With regards to the question of whether it is better to be feared or loved, what in the abstract is the best outcome according to Machiavelli?
It is best to be both feared and loved
Which of the following personalities should a prince avoid in forming an advisory council?
Which of the following does Machiavelli compare to a woman, suggesting it must be "jogged and beaten" in order to be tamed?
True or False (according to Machiavelli): In order to rule a just state, sometimes a prince must act unjustly.
Hobbes theory of the Leviathan was inspired by which scholarly method?
Which of the following quotes best captures how Hobbes understands life in the state of nature?
"Life is solidarity, poor, nasty brutish, and short"
In Chapter 13 of Leviathan, the fact that human beings are fundamentally equal in the state of nature leads to what outcome?
The war of all against all
According to Hobbes in Chapter 13 of Leviathan, what are the three sources of conflict in the state of nature?
Competition, diffidence and glory
According to Hobbes, what is the first law of nature in Chapter 14?
That all humans are free to do whatever is necessary to preserve their life
In both Chapters 14 and 21, Hobbes identifies the only exception to obeying the commands of the sovereign. What is this exception?
Orders that demand self-harm or self-incrimination
True or False: The Leviathan must always take the form of a monarchy or kingship.
In the founding covenant of the Leviathan, the people agree to obey the state in exchange for the state providing which of the following?
Protection and security
True or False: According to Hobbes, slaves have a right to revolt against their masters.
In Chapter 19 of Leviathan, Hobbes suggests which of the following is the best form of government?
Which of the following is NOT an attribute of liberalism?
The primary incentive, according to Locke, for creating a commonwealth is which of the following?
To secure life and property from the excesses of unregulated punishment
How does one claim ownership of an item or a plot of land in the state of nature?
Mixing one's labor with the object or plot
What is the form of society based on the relationship with the husband and wife and it a proto-stage to the formation of political society?
Decisions in the legislature of the commonwealth are made in which of the following manners?
True of False: According to Locke, a commonwealth can take some form of Monarchy?
A Sovereign who claims a right to rule that has not been given to them or belongs to someone else is an example of which of the following according to Locke?
When is the only time a master/servant style relationship (i.e. slavery) between two individuals acceptable for Locke? (Look in Chapter 4)
As punishment for a capital crime
Which of the following would be justified reasons for rebelling against the commonwealth and returning to political society?
All listed anwers
This is a video of a Montana survivalist arguing with a county court judge. What argument does he make drawn from Locke's political thought to justify the fact he caught a fish without permission (a fishing license)?
Natural law permits him to protect and perpetuate his life
In this opening scene from the film Avatar, the Navi in Pandora resemble which political thinker's conception of humans in the state of nature?
Rousseau (in the Discourse on Inequality)
What is Rousseau's argument with regards to the morality of slavery?
Humans cannot be slaves and slavery is always wrong
What "right" discussed by other thinkers as being important for establishment of civil society is, according to Rousseau, actually a source of inequality and requires the creation of a commonwealth to combat its effects?
In giving up their rights they enjoyed in the state of nature, what do the individuals that come together to constitute the commonwealth receive in return?
Better, more empowering rights
Which of the following is the best definition of the general will?
The will of the people as determined through unanimous (or near unanimous) consent
Which of the following forms of government does Rousseau argue is the least likely to succeed?
According to Rousseau, monarchy is best suited to which type of city?
A Large City
What prevents a state from being vulnerable to tyranny and threats of usurpation according to Rousseau?
The periodic calling of assemblies of citizens to determine the general will with regard to form of government and leadership
Which of the following best captures Rousseau's view on religious toleration?
The state should tolerate the religions that are practiced by other states and not seek to convert them to its own
What should the penalty be, according to Rousseau, for challenging the sanctity of the civic religion?
According to Wollstonecraft, what is standard by which one can determine the quality of individuals?
Practice of virtue
According to Wollstonecraft, women did not receive an education in reason, knowledge or virtue, but an education in which of the following?
According Wollstonecraft, the reason why women were "the weaker sex" was because of which of the following?
The inferiority of their upbringing and education
Which Enlightenment thinker that we have studied in class did Wollstonecraft take a particular dislike toward?
Wollstonecraft's argument that the differences between men and women can be best understood in terms of degree and not nature resembles which thinker previously discussed in class?
Though she wrote powerfully about the challenges and difficulties of being a woman in a world controlled by tyrannical men, she had very little sympathy for which of the following groups of women?
According to Wollstonecraft, who is REALLY to blame for the actions of this spoiled child?
The lack of proper education for girls, who embody both the spoiled child and the naive mother
According to Wollstonecraft, women experience two forms of tyranny, the Divine Right of Kings and which of the following?
The Divine Right of Husbands
What legislative reforms did Wollstonecraft recommend?
A certain number of seats in the legislature be set aside for female legislators who could speak on women's issues
Children in elementary school should be educated in which manner?
Lessons that emphasize creativity and physical exercise
What is the key concept for John Stuart Mill that determines whether or not the state should intervene in the ability of individuals to enjoy their liberty?
According to Mill, the primary source of restrictions and constraints on individual liberty is not the state per se, but which of the following?
Tyranny of the majority
According to Mill, which of the following is NOT a reason to protect the right of individuals to speak, think and discuss ideas in a free and open manner?
Individuals must be shielded from speech that they might find offensive or traumatizing
For Mill, liberty is important for which of the following reasons?
It gives individual humans the space to maximize their potential
Why might Mill argue that the state of Colorado is correct in not mandating motorcyclists wear helmets while riding?
Because not wearing a helmet does not put anyone else in danger expect the rider
Which of the following terms is not associated with the term "utility"?
According to Mill, what is the standard by which one can determine what is desirable in society?
That people express in their words and actions what it is the desrie
Spending your Spring Break at Daytona Beach getting drunk, overeating and looking for "hook-ups" is an example of which of the following according to Mill?
True or False: Mr. Spock is a utilitarian
True or False: Captain Kirk is a utilitarian
Which of the following is Kant's "Categorical Imperative?"
Treat others as ends rather than means
For a community of states to achieve peace, which activity are they to avoid at all possible costs?
What form of military power does Kant argue states should reject?
Which of the following best explains Kant's approach to debt between states?
Large debts between states should be forbidden
Which of the following forms of government does Kant believe are more amenable to peaceful relations between states?
Which of the following is NOT a good political model for perpetual peace?
What is the obligation of a state toward visitors from other countries?
They must be given a universally recognized allotment of basic rights and protections
Nietzsche's "On the Genealogy of Morals" seeks to understand the meaning behind which two key ideas that serve as the grounding for moral philosophy?
Good and Evil
What is meant by the term "Will to Power"?
The basic instinct in all humans to dominate and take control of their surroundings
Who does Nietzsche blame for creating "bad conscious" in human beings?
Christianity and other "revealed" religions
The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of what according to Marx?
What is the primary social antagonism of the era of industrialization?
Bourgeois vs. Proletarian
What is the role of the state in bourgeois society?
The executive committee of the ruling bourgeois class
Why do states adopt social welfare policies like unemployment insurance or job training according to Marx?
To neutralize dissent and protect the assets of the bourgeoisie from violent revolt
How do workers transition from passive acceptance of their lot in life to organizing for political and social change?
By becoming alienated from their labor and the products of their labor
Why should workers not be troubled by the prospect of abolishing private property?
Because for most workers, private property ownership is already an impossibility
Workers forming a political party (or trying to control an existing one) and trying to reform the laws of a state through the existing constitutional mechanisms is an example of which of the following?
What is Marx's view of patriotism?
A form of bourgeois distraction preventing the workers from seeing who their real friends and enemies are
The workers have nothing to lose but what if they initiate the communist revolution according to Marx?
According to Marx in the Communist Manifesto, what is the solution to the problem being sung about in this clip from Family Guy?
Have the elves seize Santa's workshop and manage its output in the interests of the elves
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