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Terms in this set (17)
What is transpiration?
The loss of water vapour from a leaf, mainly through the stomata.
Describe the structure of a root.
What is the role of the phloem?
Transports nutrients to growing regions (e.g. shoots) and to storage organs (e.g. root tubers) of the plant.
What is the role of the xylem?
Transports water to leaf.
How does water move into the root?
What is the role of the root hair?
Absorbs water and nutrients.
How do nutrients move into the root?
How is the root hair well adapted to its function?
Large surface area increases rate of diffusion and active transport
Lots of mitochondria to provide energy for active transport.
What is the role of the xylem, concerning transport of substances?
Maintains a steep concentration in a similar way that a blood supply does.
How does temperature effect the rate of transpiration?
Transpiration is greater when the temperature is higher.
The particles have more energy and so leave the plant faster.
How does humidity effect transpiration?
Transpiration is greater in low humidity.
Low humidity = low concentration of water droplets in air.
But there is high concentration in leaf.
Concentration gradient is in favour of water loss from leaf through osmosis.
How does wind level effect transpiration?
Greater transpiration when windy.
Wind continually removes water from atmosphere and maintains the steep concentration gradient.
How does light effect transpiration?
More stomata open when brighter.
Creates more transpiration as more water is lost.
What is the transpiration stream/pull?
Water evapourates from the leaves.
This creates a slight shortage of water from the leaves, meaning that more water needs to be drawn up from the rest of the plant to the xylem vessels.
This therefore means that more water is drawn up from the roots.
The process continues, causing a CONSTANT transpiration stream.
What is different about the structure of the xylem and phloem vessels?
The phloem are made up of living columns of cells with small holes in the end to allow nutrients to pass through.
The Xylem tubes are made up of dead plant cells joined end to end with end walls between them and no hole down the middle.
What is different about the transport direction of the xylem and phloem vessels?
The phloem transport nutrients in both directions.
The xylem only transport water one way- upwards.
What is the flow rate?
amount of minerals/ ions transferred in a given time period.
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