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Certified Quality Improvement Associate
Terms in this set (134)
With Regards to the concept of quality, doing things well
create what was intended
With Regards to the concept of quality, doing things efficiently
Which definition of Quality is embodied most in the mission of the American Society of Quality
Product that meets and/or exceeds customer expectations
When did the modern quality movement begin
Employed by Bell Labs
Father of the modern quality movement
Physicist employed by US Census Bureau
Techniques by Japan to help economy recover from WWII
Errors are system based and not human based
identify and satisfy customer needs is crucial
Joseph Juran and Armand Feigenbaum
system problems remedied through three fundamental managerial process's are beliefs held by Deming and
stressed need to involve all depart managers in pursuit of quality
formulated the theory of SPC
What does SPC stand for?
Statistical Process Control
Created PDCA Cycle
What does PDCA stand for?
Plan Do Check Act
Renamed PDCA to be PDSA
PDSA stands for
Plan Do Study Act
This person worked with the Japanese after WWII in addition to Juran and Feigenbaum
Used binomial distribution experiment to illustrate a concept regarding source of variation of outcome
First to use term total quality control
work as a corporate Vice President for ITT
the father of CWQC
What is CWQC
Company Wide Quality Control
Defined quality as conformance to requirements
introduced the concept of the cost of quality
called for the development of a quality vaccine to prevent nonconformance
work smarter not harder
championed the notion of zero defects
imbedded group problem solving along with SPC & PDCA
Customers can be internal to the organization
What are 3 fundamental management process identified by Edward Deming and Joseph Juran
Planning, Control and Improvement
True or False. Each organization has unique products, services culture and capabilities that would make the organization's quality pursuit more closely aligned to a specific quality model.
True of False. With regard to management philosophy Edward Deming has it the most correct.
A set of interrelated or interacting activities that transforms inputs into outputs
a set of interrelated or interacting process's
combining groups of interrelated process's to meet the needs of stakeholders and customers
True or False.The process management approach to management is based upon all of the following regarding process's, identification of processes along with input and output, documentation, implementation, measurement and continual improvement
True or False.When related resources and activities are managed as a process the objectives of the organization are achieved more efficiently.
True or False. The key to controlling variation of product is to manage the process according to process documentation
Which of the following is not a synonym regarding variation? A. Common cause, b. system, c. chance and d. special cause
Of one million units produced 500 are beyond the acceptable level manufacturing tolerances. How many units are identified as special cause variation?
True or False. Management is most responsible for controlling common cause variation and employees are most responsible for detecting and eliminating special cause variation
Which of the following processes would lend itself to SPC?
A. Long term low quantity
B. Long Term high quantity
C. Short term low quantity
D. Short term high quanity
Long Term high quantity
What is the first step in variation management
Knowing when variation occurs
Poor quality management results in high number of defective parts which can be corrected in 2 ways
a. rework with additional cost
b. minimize defects and rework by designing for quality.
Which corrective technique would maximize the profit of organization?
minimize defects and rework by designing for quality
Minimizing defects and reworking designs illustrates the concept of
prevention vs. detection
The production process requires four steps. At what step is it most detrimental financially to the company?
Compare cost to correct an error in 3rd stage of production process as oppose to 1st stage
The prevention vs.detection example from the pocket guide used the scenario involved
Process documentation might include all but one of the following
a.process identification and process capability
b.identification of process owner and process customer
c.starting and ending activities with inputs & outputs of each
d. salary levels and training plans for those involved in the process
salary levels and training plans for those involved in the process
What does ISO Stand for?
International Organization for Standardization
What does the ISO 9001 do?
standard helps you achieve consistent results and continuously improve process
What is the focus of the ISO 9001?
the focus is on the customer
How is six sigma defined?
statistical term that refers to the standard deviation of a process about its mean
Who developed Six Sigma?
What does DMAIC stand for?
Define Measure Analyze Improve Control
What defines stakeholders?
employees, the organization itself, customers, suppliers and the community
True or False. Lean and Six Sigma are two separate programs
What does lean operation focus on?
Getting rid of waste
What does RCA stand for?
Root Cause Analysis
What does RCA do?
determines what causes variation in process and continuously improve and maintain systems
What do we use to measure variation?
What is six sigma trying to achieve?
no more than 3.4 errors per million
In what year the Malcolm Bridge National Quality Award established by Congress?
Malcolm Bridge was U.S Secretary of
The Baldridge Performance Excellence Program is a national education program based upon the Baldridge Criteria for Performance Excellence. Awards are offered in------------ Categories
SPC, uniformity and dependability at low cost
Philosophy of quality summarized by Deming
Communication, Organization, planning, control and coordination
Philosophy of quality summarized by Juran
Quality is conformance to requirements, prevention over detection
Philosophy of quality summarized by Crosby
How many annual awards are given in each category for the Baldridge Performance Excellence Program?
Which four of the following are not a category of the Baldridge Performance Excellence Program Awards?
Farming, Construction, Compensation and Retirement Focus
True or False. Measurement, Analysis and Knowledge is a Baldridge Criteria
The term ISO 9000 is commonly used to refer to a series of international standards first published in
ISO 9000 was developed in
True or False. ISO 9001: Quality Management Systems-requirements is the standard that outlines the quality management system elements that must be addressed to meet customer and applicable regulatory requirements
ISO9001 is the only standard in the ISO 9000 family against which third party certification can be granted. Since the standard was first released, over----million organizations from------ countries have achieved certification.
How many quality management principles form the basis of the current international quality management requirements
Processes must be reviewed on an ongoing basis to ensure competitiveness
process must be managed individually and as a group
organizations must anticipate, meet and exceed the expectations of stakeholders who provide the revenue steam for the organization
establishment of common goals and directions
control and improvements of activities and groups of activities
all employees should participate in decision making and share in the success or failure of the firm
maintaining a good relationship of those organizations that provide components to the manufacturing process is a part of quality management
close supplier relationships
a data driven decision support system improves the reliability that a favorable decision has been made
fact based decisions
True or False. Shewhart created PDCA but Deming also fully utilized the concept in his teachings
install, implement and maintain are all terms most closely aligned with which part of the pdca cycle
record, examine and test are all terms most closely aligned with which part of the pdca cycle
set, define and clarify are all terms most closely aligned with which part of the pdca cycle
helps a team come to consensus about an issue by grouping ideas together
Arrow Diagram/ Activity network diagram
establishes a sequenced plan for accomplishing tasks in a project or process
assessment to determine whether agreed upon requirements are being met and will continue to be met
Organization does its own audit; 1st party
customer-supplier relationship audit:2nd party
3rd party external audit
independent person auditing organization
The 3 types of audits
Product, Process and System
audit of particular product or service
looks at process creating product or service, covers portion of system
looks whether applicable elements of overall system are appropriate and effective.
organization compares its own performance for a specific process with that of a recognized leader in comparable industry
Five types of benchmarking
competitive, functional, performance, process and strategic
used to generate ideas in a non judgemental environment in a short time period
3 types of Brainstorming
Structured, unstructured and silent
Cause and effect diagram
Created by Kaoru Ishikawa, fishbone, relationship between given outcome and all factors that influence the outcome
used to record frequency of specific events during a data collection period
Line chart with control limits; one can observe variation and investigate to determine whether it is due to normal common causes or special causes.
Control Chart has 3 factors
Upper control limit, center line and lower control limit
Two main categories of control chart are
attribute data and variable data
Cost of Quality
uses philip crosby's notion of price of nonconformance; allows organization to determine extent to which resources are used for activities that prevent poor quality, appraise organization's product or services and result from internal and external failures
Cost of Quality is divided into 4 types of costs
Prevention costs, appraisal costs, internal failure costs and external failure costs
evaluates and prioritize list of options
keep asking why till you get to the root cause
graphic representation of the flow of a process, which encourages communication between customers and suppliers
Force Field Analysis
encourages agreement used for clarifying and strengthening driving forces, identify obstacles or restraining forces.
bar chart used to plot frequency with which different values of a given variable occur, be sure data is measurable (number of intervals)
quick and easy way for group to identify the items of highest priority in a list
Nominal Group Technique
Structured Process that identifies and ranks major problems or issues to be addressed
graphic representation of frequency with which certain events occur, show where to put your initial effort to get most gain (histogram in descending order)
Created the 80/20 rule
what is the 80/20 rule
80% of defects are due to only 20% of causes
lean six sigma tool developed by Lockheed Martin, aids in decision of making and prioritization of important topics
PICKS stands for
Possible, Implement, Challenge and Kill
Possible in PICK is
low impact, easy to do
Implement in PICK is
high impact, easy to do
Challenge in PICK is
high impact, hard to do
Kill in PICK is
low impact, hard to do
Relations Diagram/ Interrelationship Digraph
clarifies intertwined relationships in a complex situation in order to find appropriate solution
Line graph show data points plotted in order which they occur; this chart reveals trends/shifts in process, variation, improvement, decline over time..
Chart where 1 variable is plotted against another to determine whether there is a correlation between the 2 variables
when one increases the other increases
when one increases the other decreases
No regression line
variables are uncorrelated
Graphic Representation of separation of broad general information into increasing levels of detail.
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