AP Bio Chapter 6/7 Test
Mr. Elliot's Class NMHS
Terms in this set (29)
Distinguish between magnification and resolving power.
magnification is the ration of an objects image size to its real size. resolution is a measure of the clarity of the image and is minimum distance two points can be seperated and still can be distinguished as two points
Describe the principles, advantages, and limitations of the light microscope, transmission electron microscope, and scanning electron microscope.
electron microscopes focus a beam through specimen,provides detailed study of the surface area. also detailed study of internal ultrastructure of cells
Describe the major steps of cell fractionation and explain why it is a useful technique.
cell fractionation is used to isolate cell components based on size and density. steps are cells are homogenized and break up in a blender the mixture is then centrifuged at various speeds and durations to fractionate the cell components, forming a series of pellets.
Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic: have a nucleus bounded by a memranous nuclear envelope have arranged form organelles.
Prokaryotic: don't have nucleus and have their DNA located int he nucleoid
Explain why there are both upper and lower limits to cell size.
as a cell getss LARGER, its surface area to volume ratio gets much smaller, which means that it takes too long diffusing into the cell the membrane to get to all pores of the cell. too SMALL to contain on the components neccessary for life.
Explain the advantages of compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells.
compartmentalization advantages creats appropriate microenivorments for those diverse processes, allos damage limitation, minimizes non specific interactions and consequently increased cellular efficiency
Describe the structure and function of the nuclear envelope, including the role of the pore complex.
nuclear envelope is double membrane perforated by pores. pore comples lines each pore regulating certain large macromolecules and particles.
Briefly explain how the nucleus controls protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.
nucleus synthesizing mRNA (messenger) from the DNA instructions, mRNA is transported to the cytoplasm then ribosomes translate the mRNA's genetic message into primary structure of a specific polypeptide.
Explain how the nucleolus contributes to protein synthesis.
rRNA is synthesized and assembled with proteins from the cytoplasm
Describe the structure and function of a eukaryotic ribosome.
ribosomes containing rRNA and proten are the cellular components that carry out protein synthesis
Distinguish between free and bound ribosomes in terms of location and function.
free ribosomes; suspended in cytosol and synthesize proteins that function within the cytosol
bound ribosomes: attached to the outside of the endoplasmic recticulum or nuclear envelope, and synthesize proteins that are inserted into membranes, packaged into organelles, or exported from the cell
List the components of the endomembrane system, and describe the structure and functions of each component.
disternae: interconnected tubules or compartments
Golgi apparatus: consists of flattened sacs
lysosome: are membrane-enclosed sacs of hydrolytic enzmes used by animals cells to digest macromolecules.
Compare the structure and functions of smooth and rough ER.
smooth ER: synthesizes lipids, metabolizes carbohydrates, stores calcium, detoxifies poison
rough ER: has bound ribosomes, produces proteins and membranes, which are distributed by transport vesicles
Explain the significance of the cis and trans sides of the Golgi apparatus.
cis and trans help direst the vesicles to the plasma membrane or to other organelles.
Describe the cisternal maturation model of Golgi function.
cisternae proposes themselves "mature" moving from cis to trans face while carrying some proteins along
Describe three examples of intracellular digestion by lysosomes.
lysosomes: carryout intracellular digestion
autophagy a plant or fungal cell may have one or several vacuoles
food vacuoles are formed by phagocytosis, contractive vacuoles pump excess water out of protist cells.
Name three different kinds of vacuoles, giving the function of each kind.
food vacuoles: pump excess water out of protist cells
central vacuoles: reserves of important organic compounds and water
contractile vacuole: maintains plants shape and structure by storing water
Describe the structure of a mitochondrion and explain the importance of compartmentalization in mitochondrial function.
mitochondrion are enclosed by two membranes a smooth outer membrane and inner membrane folded into cristae
Distinguish among amyloplasts, chromoplasts, and chloroplasts.
chloroplast: convert solar energy to chemical energy and synthesize new organic compounds sucha s sugar from C02 and H20
amyloplast: are non-pigmented organelles found in some plant cells
chromoplast are plasteids responsible for pigment synthesis and storage
Identify the three functional compartments of a chloroplast. Explain the importance of compartmentalization in chloroplast function.
chloroplast structure includes thylakouds, membranous sacs and stroma, the internal fluid grana
Describe the evidence that mitochondria and chloroplasts are semiautonomous organelles.
mitochondria is different in plants, because they can make food for themselves, without help from the nucleus....
Explain the roles of peroxisomes in eukaryotic cells.
Perisomes produce hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water.
Describe the functions of the cytoskeleton.
a network of protein fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm gives mechanical support to the cell
Compare the structure, monomers, and functions of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.
microtubules help shape the cell guide movement of organelles help separate chromosme copies in dividing cells
microfilaments are built from molecules of protein actin are found in microvilli
intermediate filaments support cell shape fix organelles in place
Explain how the ultrastructure of cilia and flagella relates to their functions.
a basal body that anchors the cilium or flagellum and a motor protein called dynein, which drives the bending movements of a cilium or flagellum.
Describe the basic structure of a plant cell wall.
plant cell walls are mad of cellulose fibers embedded in other polysaccharides and protein, may have multiple layers
Describe the structure and list four functions of the extracellular matrix in animal cells.
ECM or extracellular matrix made up of glycoproteins and other macromolecules FUNCTIONS are support, adhesion, movment, regulation
Explain how the extracellular matrix may act to integrate changes inside and outside the cell.
they attach to glycoproteins like fibronectin
which attaches to cell proteins called integrins
which integrates information from both outside and inside the cell
Name the intercellular junctions found in plant and animal cells and list the function of each type of junction.
...gap junctions are cytoplasmic connections that allow for the exchange of ions and small molecules between the cells through protein-lined pores
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