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64 terms

Chapter 10-13 Vocabulary

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Heredity
the biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next.
Trait
a distinguishing feature of your personal nature.
Genetics
the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms.
Gamete
a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
Fertilization
process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell.
Zygote
the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell).
Pollination
transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a plant.
Hybrid
an organism that is the offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock.
Allele
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits.
Dominant
trait that will show up in an organism's phenotype if gene is present.
Recessive
The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism.
Law of Segregation
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair.
Phenotype
what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype.
Genotype
the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism.
Homozygous
having identical alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci.
Heterozygous
having dissimilar alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci.
Law of Independent Assortment
each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random.
Diploid
an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number.
Haploid
an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes.
Homologous Chromosome
one of a matching pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent.
Meiosis
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms.
Sperm
the male reproductive cell.
Egg
Female sex cell.
Sexual Reproduction
process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism.
Crossing Over
the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis.
Genetic Recombination
the regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents.
Nondisjunction
meiosis in which there is a failure of paired homologous chromosomes to separate.
Nitrogenous Base
an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA.
Double Helix
a pair of parallel helixes intertwined about a common axis.
DNA Replication
the process of making a copy of DNA.
Messenger RNA
the template for protein synthesis.
Ribosomal RNA
type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes.
Transfer RNA
type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis.
Transcription
the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into the RNA.
Codon
a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid.
Translation
the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm.
Mutation
any event that changes genetic structure.
Point Mutation
a mutation due to an intramolecular reorganization of a gene.
Frameshift Mutation
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide.
Chromosomal Mutation
any event that changes genetic structure.
Mutagen
any agent (physical or environmental) that can induce a genetic mutation or can increase the rate of mutation.
Pedigree
the descendants of one individual.
Carrier
a person who has some pathogen to which he is immune but who can pass it on to others.
Fetus
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
Incomplete Dominance
one allele is not completely dominant over the other allele.
Codominant Allele
both alleles are equally expressed.
Multiple Allele
presence of more than two alleles for a genetic trait.
Autosome
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
Sex Chromosome
a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual.
Sex-linked Trait
a trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans.
Polygenic Inheritance
combined effect of two or more genes on a single character.
Karyotype
the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes).
Inbreeding
the act of mating closely related individuals.
Test Cross
the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype.
Genetic Engineering
the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism.
Recombinant DNA
genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms.
Transgenic Organism
organisms that contain functional recombinant DNA from a different organism.
Restriction Enzyme
any of the enzymes that cut nucleic acid at specific restriction sites and produce restriction fragments.
Vector
a variable quantity that can be resolved into components., any agent (person or animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease.
Plasmid
a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication.
Clone
a group of genetically identical cells or organisms derived from a single cell or individual by some kind of asexual reproduction.
Human Genome
the approximately 35,000-40,000 genes on the 46 human chromosomes.
Linkage Map
A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes.
Gene Therapy
The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder.