the biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next.
process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell.
the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell).
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits.
The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism.
Law of Segregation
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair.
Law of Independent Assortment
each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random.
process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism.
the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis.
the regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents.
an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA.
a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid.
the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm.
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide.
any agent (physical or environmental) that can induce a genetic mutation or can increase the rate of mutation.
a trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans.
the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes).
the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype.
the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism.
genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms.
any of the enzymes that cut nucleic acid at specific restriction sites and produce restriction fragments.
a variable quantity that can be resolved into components., any agent (person or animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease.
a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication.
a group of genetically identical cells or organisms derived from a single cell or individual by some kind of asexual reproduction.
A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes.