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Importance of culture and language.

Zone of Proximal Development

Idea of Lev Vygotsky. It is the difference between mental age and ability to solve problems.


Heirarchy of needs. Physical, intellectual and emotional.


Learners construct knowledge. Discovery and inquiry learning. Learning must be tied to a student context.


Learning must have MEANING. Education to engage and enlarge experience. Cooperative learning. Democratic classroom as a lab for real life learning.


Multiple Intelligences. Word smart, number smart, picture smart, body smart, music smart, self smart.


Social learning theory. Motivation comes from expectation for success.


Reinforcement and operant conditioning our reaction to the world.

Negative reinforcement

Taken away to get desired result

Positive reinforcement

Added to get desired result


Stage theorist. 4 stages of cognitive development.


Knowledge is built through interaction with the environment.


Something learned previously which helps, or hinders a new situation.


Learning how to learn. Developing, maintaining and evaluating a plan.


Temporary learning aid designed to help the student grow in independence as a learner.

Blooms Taxonomy

Knowledge, understanding, application (lower)
Analysis, synthesis, evaluation (upper)

Lawrence Kohlberg

Stages of moral development.

Carol Gilligan

Stages of moral development in girls.

Erik Erikson

8 stages of social development. Built on Freuds 5. Life stage values are built on conflict and solution through out the adult life.

Four learning styles

Visual, Auditory, Tactile, Kinesthetic

Gender difference

Girls memorize, boys like elaboration strategies
Girls better in reading than math
Girls express emotion with words, boys action

Americans with Disability Act (ADA)

No person will be denied benefits or be prejudiced against due to a disability

Individuals with Disability Act (IDEA)

Free and appropriate public education.

Least Restrictive Environment

Most appropriate placement, closest to mainstream.

Differentiated Instruction

Differs in Content, Process and Product.

Alternative Assessment

Students create a response to a question or task instead of choosing from a list like on a traditional test.

Learned Helplessness

A sense that one is doomed to fail. Prevents people from attempting new tasks.


Any consequence that strengthens a behavior

Operant Conditioning

Behaviors or strengthened or weakened by consequences.

Inductive Reasoning

Follows the cycle used in the scientific method.


Show truth based on hypotheses.


A test measures what it is suppose to measure


Consistency of the test results


Divide the scores into 9 parts. 5 is mean, 7 to 9 are above average and 1-3 are below average.

Objectivist approach

Knowledge is fixed and transmitted to students.

Teacher Centered Models

Lecture, Direct Instruction, Concept Teaching

Student Centered (Constructiveist)

Cooperative learning, Problem based, Discussion

Leadership Role

Leads in classroom by lessons and planning

Instructional Role

Methods used to teach

Organizational Role

Work in the school community

Sustaining Expectation Effect

You get good grades because you always have.


Keeping students in the same group=limits opportunity.

Cultural Deficit Theory

Minorities are deficient in intelligence

Cultural Difference Theory

Low achievement in minorities is due to a cultural difference between schol and home NOT a cultural deficit.

Premack Principal

People will perform a less desirable activity to get the more desirable activity.

Fixed ratio Reinforcement

Presented after a specific number of RESPONSES

FIxed interval reinforcement

Specific TIME must lapse before a reinforcement is given.

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