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Zone of Proximal Development
Idea of Lev Vygotsky. It is the difference between mental age and ability to solve problems.
Learners construct knowledge. Discovery and inquiry learning. Learning must be tied to a student context.
Learning must have MEANING. Education to engage and enlarge experience. Cooperative learning. Democratic classroom as a lab for real life learning.
Multiple Intelligences. Word smart, number smart, picture smart, body smart, music smart, self smart.
Knowledge, understanding, application (lower)
Analysis, synthesis, evaluation (upper)
8 stages of social development. Built on Freuds 5. Life stage values are built on conflict and solution through out the adult life.
Girls memorize, boys like elaboration strategies
Girls better in reading than math
Girls express emotion with words, boys action
Americans with Disability Act (ADA)
No person will be denied benefits or be prejudiced against due to a disability
Students create a response to a question or task instead of choosing from a list like on a traditional test.
Divide the scores into 9 parts. 5 is mean, 7 to 9 are above average and 1-3 are below average.
Cultural Difference Theory
Low achievement in minorities is due to a cultural difference between schol and home NOT a cultural deficit.
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