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Importance of culture and language.
Zone of Proximal Development
Idea of Lev Vygotsky. It is the difference between mental age and ability to solve problems.
Heirarchy of needs. Physical, intellectual and emotional.
Learners construct knowledge. Discovery and inquiry learning. Learning must be tied to a student context.
Learning must have MEANING. Education to engage and enlarge experience. Cooperative learning. Democratic classroom as a lab for real life learning.
Multiple Intelligences. Word smart, number smart, picture smart, body smart, music smart, self smart.
Social learning theory. Motivation comes from expectation for success.
Reinforcement and operant conditioning our reaction to the world.
Taken away to get desired result
Added to get desired result
Stage theorist. 4 stages of cognitive development.
Knowledge is built through interaction with the environment.
Something learned previously which helps, or hinders a new situation.
Learning how to learn. Developing, maintaining and evaluating a plan.
Temporary learning aid designed to help the student grow in independence as a learner.
Knowledge, understanding, application (lower)
Analysis, synthesis, evaluation (upper)
Stages of moral development.
Stages of moral development in girls.
8 stages of social development. Built on Freuds 5. Life stage values are built on conflict and solution through out the adult life.
Four learning styles
Visual, Auditory, Tactile, Kinesthetic
Girls memorize, boys like elaboration strategies
Girls better in reading than math
Girls express emotion with words, boys action
Americans with Disability Act (ADA)
No person will be denied benefits or be prejudiced against due to a disability
Individuals with Disability Act (IDEA)
Free and appropriate public education.
Least Restrictive Environment
Most appropriate placement, closest to mainstream.
Differs in Content, Process and Product.
Students create a response to a question or task instead of choosing from a list like on a traditional test.
A sense that one is doomed to fail. Prevents people from attempting new tasks.
Any consequence that strengthens a behavior
Behaviors or strengthened or weakened by consequences.
Follows the cycle used in the scientific method.
Show truth based on hypotheses.
A test measures what it is suppose to measure
Consistency of the test results
Divide the scores into 9 parts. 5 is mean, 7 to 9 are above average and 1-3 are below average.
Knowledge is fixed and transmitted to students.
Teacher Centered Models
Lecture, Direct Instruction, Concept Teaching
Student Centered (Constructiveist)
Cooperative learning, Problem based, Discussion
Leads in classroom by lessons and planning
Methods used to teach
Work in the school community
Sustaining Expectation Effect
You get good grades because you always have.
Keeping students in the same group=limits opportunity.
Cultural Deficit Theory
Minorities are deficient in intelligence
Cultural Difference Theory
Low achievement in minorities is due to a cultural difference between schol and home NOT a cultural deficit.
People will perform a less desirable activity to get the more desirable activity.
Fixed ratio Reinforcement
Presented after a specific number of RESPONSES
FIxed interval reinforcement
Specific TIME must lapse before a reinforcement is given.