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Terms in this set (190)
The number of cranial nerves arising from the brainstem is
The external capsule separates the
putamen and claustrum.
The choroid plexus originates in the
the transverse fissure separates:
the cerebrum from the cerebellum
the central fissure separates the:
frontal lobe of the cerebrum from the parietal lobes
what types of fields are utilized in MRI?
virtually any plane
CT typically acquires images in which plane?
what does the diaphragm separate?
the thoracic cavity from the abdominal/abdominopelvic cavity
another name for midsagittal plane:
how many regions can the abd and pelvis be divided into?
the cranial bones are composed of two layers of?
foramen magnum is associated w which cranial bone?
how many lobes compose each cerebral hemisphere?
what are the shallow grooves on the surface of the brain?
how many cranial bones in the human skull?
what forms the floor of the orbit?
maxillary medially and zygomatic laterally
what are the last paranasal sinuses to develop?
which facial bones are not a pair?
vomer and mandible
what is defined as the point where the body of the mandible meets the ramus?
what forms the lateral wall of the orbit?
zygomatic and sphenoid (posteriorly)
another name for zygomatic bones?
what done is the alveolar process associated w?
how many bones form the orbit?
which cavities are the maxillary bones involved in forming?
oral, nasal, and orbital bones
the largest immovable bone of the face
What do the zygomatic bones articulate with?
frontal bone (superiorly), maxilla (anteriorly),
zygomatic process of temporal bone (posteriorly)
Only moveable bone in the face
what piece of laryngeal cartilage forms the Adams apple?
what does the inferior aspect of the epiglottis attach to?
what portion of a muscle is fixed?
what forms the medial wall of the orbit?
ethmoid and lacrimal
how is the thyroid gland seen on cross sectional CT imaging of the neck?
explain/define the purpose of the external jugular vein.
it drains the areas fed by the external carotid arteries and are a continuation of the retromandibular veins
where does the space exist when skeletal muscle is in a relaxed state?
on axial imaging, which muscle of the neck is seen posteriorly?
the outermost covering of the entire muscle:
what is considered the bulkiest part of the muscle?
the pulmonary trunk divides into?
right and left pulmonary arteries
what is the most anterior chamber of the heart?
what is the most posterior chamber of the heart?
the left hilum is slightly ______ than the right
which ribs are true ribs?
what structures are located in the mediastinum?
the heart, great vessels entering and exiting the heart, thymus, trachea, and esophagus
where can the cardiac notch be located?
on the medial surface of the L lung
where is the pulmonary circulatory system located?
where does the blood go between in the pulmonary circulatory system?
involves all blood going from the heart and lungs and the return route
what is considered the function of the valves in the heart?
prevent backflow of blood
most superior aspect of the sternum:
most inferior aspect of the sternum:
xiphoid process (ensiform)
the coronary arteries branch off of what vessel?
the gladiolus is also known as?
the body of the sternum
which ribs are considered floating?
which portion of the aorta is considered wider?
Where can the pulmonary semilunar valve be found in the heart?
where can the aortic semilunar valve be found in the heart?
what vessels are associated w the R atrium?
coronary sinus, SVC, IVC
what vessels are associated w the L atrium?
the left and right pulmonary veins
the pectoralis major and minor and subclavius muscles are part of which group?
anterior thoracic region
what can be labeled as the last segment of the small intestines?
what can be labeled as the first segment of the small intestines?
what is the most anterior opening of the diaphragm?
what can be labeled as the middle segment of the small intestines?
typical number of carpal bones:
how many phalanges can typically be found in one upper extremity?
where can you find the ulnar notch?
describe/define intertubercular groove:
separates the greater and less tubercles located on the humerus
what muscle is most often involved in rotator cuff injuries?
what is the cotyloid notch associated w?
largest tarsal bone:
what type of bone is the patella considered to be?
in what quadrant would you normally find the liver?
what type of contrast is typically used for CT?
iodinated and barium
what type of contrast is typically used for MRI?
what would be the area of pain if a pt had possible appendicitis?
if a pt is having midabdominal pain, the region of the pain can be described as?
what is typically considered the minimal number of slice scanner to adequately scan a cardiac in CT?
what is the connecting tissue of the two hemispheres of the cerebrum?
the vertebral arteries join together to form?
name the largest part of the brain:
where can one find CSF?
in the subarachnoid space, in the ventricular system, and in the spinal cord. it fills the ventricles, cisterns, and sulci, as well as the central canal of the spinal cord.
name the meningeal layer that is in contact with the cranium:
describe/explain the functions of the Circle of Willis:
located at the base of the brain, equalizes pressures, gives an alt route for blood to get to the brain should it be compromised
On axial images, the dip of the meningeal layer of the dura mater in the longitudinal fissure is identified as the?
on axial images, the dip of the meningeal layer of the dura mater between the two hemispheres of the cerebellum can be described as?
how many cranial bones are in the human skull?
in reference to coronal images, what forms the inferior bony septum?
1. What do the ventricles of the brain communicate with (multiple connections/communications)?
They communicate with the central canal of the spinal cord and the with subarachnoid space.
2 lateral, 1 third, 1 fourth ventricle
Lateral ventricles - FORAMEN OF MONRO - Third ventricle - CEBRAL AQUEDUCT - Fourth ventricle - CENTRAL CANAL OF SPINAL CORD
Which cranial bone is one of a pair?
Paired - Temporal and parietal
Singular - Frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, occipital
8 cranial bones total
How many lobes compose each cerebral hemisphere?
5 lobes - frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, central
What paranasal sinuses are generally not symmetrical?
What level is the hyoid bone seen at?
Same level as the epiglottis, C3
How would you define/explain the cricoid cartilage?
Surrounds the pharynx completely, distal third of the laryngeal cartilages
How would you explain/locate the carotid arteries ( ie where are they located in reference to other vessels and muscles, what does it feed)?
Carotid arteries are medial to the SCM and medial to any veins. Feeds the face and scalp.
Why is contrast utilized on a CT of the neck?
for localization purposes
How/why is thyroid gland easily seen on cross sectional CT imaging of the neck?
With contrast it will appear hyper-opaque
How would you explain/define/what is its purpose the external jugular vein?
Drains the areas fed by the external carotid arteries (face and scalp) and are a continuation of the retromandibular veins
Tracheal cartilage protects anteriorly, what is located posteriorly?
Formed by C shaped cartilage, open posteriorly, esophagus located posteriorly
How would you describe/explain/define the largest piece of cartilage involved in forming the larynx?
Thyroid cartilage is the largest piece of cartilage, forms the Adam's apple, middle piece
Where does the external jugular veins drain into?
Right and left subclavian veins
What vessel drains deoxygenated blood from the heart itself?
How would you define/explain the most anterior and posterior chamber of the heart?
Anterior - Right ventricle
Posterior - Left atrium
What structures are located in the mediastinum?
Heart, thymus, trachea, esophagus, great vessels
Where can the cardiac notch be located?
Medial surface of the left lung, accommodates the heart
Where is the pulmonary circulatory system located/where does the blood go between?
Right ventricle - pulmonary trunk - pulmonary arteries - lungs - pulmonary veins
Where is the systemic circulatory system located/where does the blood go between?
Left atrium - left ventricle - ascending aorta - arch of aorta and descending aorta - body - SVC and IVC - Right atrium - right ventricle
With regards to pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation what contains oxygenated blood?
Systemic circulation contains oxygenated blood to the body
What can be defined/explained as the most superior and inferior aspects of the sternum?
Superior - Manubrium
Inferior - Xiphoid process
The coronary arteries are branch off of what vessel?
What portion of the aorta is considered wider?
What vessel(s) are associated with the right ventricle?
Where can Semilunar valves be found in the heart?
Between left ventricle and aorta
What vessel(s) are associated with the left ventricle?
What is the function of the capillaries in the pulmonary circulatory system?
Diffusion - between CO2 and O2
What vessel(s) are associated with the right atrium?
SVC, IVC, coronary sinus
What vessel(s) are associated with the left atrium?
The pectoralis major and minor and subclavius muscles are part of which group?
Anterior thoracic muscle group
At what landmark does the descending aorta bifurcates into the right and left common iliac arteries?
At what landmark does the right and left common iliac veins form the inferior vena?
In what space can you find the aorta?
In what space can you find the inferior vena cava (IVC)?
In general terms, one expects to find the adrenals at approximately the same level as?
crus of the diaphragm
What section of the GI tract is seen curving around the head of the pancreas?
What is the typical second branch off the abdominal descending aorta?
Superior Mesenteric artery
Most often, what is the third vessel to branch off the abdominal descending aorta?
left renal artery
What is the most posterior opening in the diaphragm?
What is the normal fourth vessel to branch off the abdominal descending aorta?
right renal artery
What is the fifth vessel to branch off the abdominal descending aorta?
Inferior mesenteric artery
On axial CT images, what can be seen separating the caudate lobe of the liver from the left lobe of the liver?
What is the first branch off the abdominal descending aorta?
In what space can you find the pancreas?
In what space can you find the kidneys?
In what space can you find the adrenals?
What level does the abdominal aorta bifurcate? And what does it bifurcate into?
L4 - Right and left common iliac arteries
What quadrant is the ileocecal valve located?
How would you define the iliac crest and what level is it located at?
Uppermost section of the ilium
What are the bones that form the symphysis pubis?
Bodies of the right and left pubic bones
What bones form the sacroiliac (SI) joints?
sacrum and iliac
What structure would you find the vermiform appendix extending from?
Cecum, commonly extending inferior and posterior to it
What are the different parts of the ilium?
Ala - flared portion
Crest - Superior border
Spine - Anterior superior
What are the bones of the bony pelvis?
Sacrum, coccyx, two innominate bones
What forms the pelvic girdle?
the innominate bones
What bones form the acetabulum?
Upper two-fifths of acetabulum - inferior part/body of the ilium
Lower posterior two-fifths of acetabulum - body of the ischium
Remaining one-fifth of acetabulum - Superior ramus of the pubic bone
What bone is the inferior ramus a part of?
The pubic bone and the ischial bone
What would be described as the largest accessory in the male reproductive system?
At what level does the erector spinae muscle disappear?
Level of the inferior sacrum
Which muscles are not unique to the pelvic region?
Constant through the abdominal and pelvic areas - Rectus abdominis, erector spinae, psoas muscle
Which muscle is seen on either side of the rectum?
Levator ani muscle
What is the most anterior muscle seen at the level of the hip?
Rectus abdominis - superior
Sartorius - low pelvis
What muscle can be seen in the C, T, L spine regions?
erector spinae muscle
What is associated with the anterior arch?
atlas - C1
What does the articulation of the superior and inferior articulating processes form?
Zygoapophyseal joins or apophyseal joints
What passes through the transverse foramina in the cervical region?
Vertebral arteries and veins
How would you describe/explain the articulation between the vertebrae?
Amphiarthrosis, or a slightly movable joint
How many processes are attached to the vertebral arch?
what are the 7 vertebral arches?
1 spinous process
2 transverse processes
2 superior articulating processes
2 inferior articulating processes
What passes through the intervertebral foramina?
nerves from the spinal cord
How many C, T, L, S, C spine does an adult have?
C - 7
T - 12
L - 5
S - 5 Fused
C - 4 Fused
What forms the neural arch?
Aka vertebral arch. Two pedicles and two laminae
What can be found within the vertebral canal?
Where can the body of the lumbar vertebrae be found?
How would you explain/describe kyphosis?
Concave anteriorly. Thoracic and pelvis
What extends posteriorly from the body of a vertebra?
What is the first and second secondary curvature of the spine to develop is in and infant?
First - An anterior convexity in the cervical region
Second - A convexity in the lumbar region
How many vertebrae are typically found in children and adults?
33 - Child
26 - Adult
The spinous process extends posteriorly from the union of what?
How are the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints classified?
number of carpal bones?
8 (per wrist)
How would you describe/define the intertubercular groove?
Aka bicipital groove or ridge. Separates greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus.
How would you define/explain the olecranon fossa? (i.e. how is it formed, what is accommodates, where is it located)
Located on the posterior distal humerus. Depression for accommodating the posterior proximal ulna to form the elbow joint.
Where can the conoid tubercle be found?
Located close to the acromial end and seen on the inferior posterior aspect of the clavicle
How many bones can be found in the bilateral upper extremities and shoulder girdles?
How would you describe/explain the lateral end of the spinous process of the scapula?
Acromion - projects beyond the lateral border, swings anteriorly
What kind of joint is the shoulder joint?
Synovial (diarthrodial), ball and socket joint
What muscle is most often involved in rotator cuff injuries?
Teres major, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis
Where can the fat pads be found in the elbow?
Coronoid, radial, olecranon - all located over their respective fossae
largest fatpad in the elbow:
Which type of joint is the elbow joint with respect to the degree of mobility and the presence or absence of a joint cavity?
What are condyloid joints?
Permits movement in two planes. Found in the wrist between radius and carpal bones
What is the largest synovial joint in the body?
Knee aka tibiofemoral
How can the hip joint be classified?
Synovial (diarthrodial) ball and socket
How many bones are in the lower extremities?
What can be described as the small pit on the head of the femur?
Where is the intercondylar fossa found?
Located on the distal posterior femur, between medial and lateral condyle
How would you describe/explain/located the intercondyloid eminence of the tibia?
On the superior surface of the tibia, the medial and lateral intercondylar tubercles form the intercondyloid eminence. Connects to distal femur.
How would you define/explain the trochlea of the talus?
Superior surface of talus, articulates with tibia
Where can you locate the fibular notch?
On the lateral distal tibia - fibula fits into this
What is inferior to the talus?
What bone on sectional images can be seen articulating with the anterior calcaneus?
What bone can be seen is seen articulating with the anterior talus on cross sectional imaging?
How should the ankle joint be classified?
Synovial (diarthrodial), hinge joint
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