Upgrade to remove ads
Aphg unit 1 study
Terms in this set (80)
The name given to a portion of the Earth's surface
Four ways places can receive names
After a person, something associated with religion, the origin of its settlers, or ancient history
Three reasons why a place could change names
Political upheavals, offensiveness in honor of something, or to bring publicity
Identifies a place by its unique physical characteristics
List some site characteristics
Topography, vegetation, latitude, elevation, climate, water sources, soil, etc.
Humans have the ability to _________ the characteristics of a site
A location and surroundings of a place
What role do familiar places have in understanding the situation of unfamiliar places?
Places near each other have similar features, you can estimate the features of an unfamiliar place by looking at the surrounding familiar places.
What place is designated as 0 degrees longitude?
What is the name for the line at 0 degrees longitude?
How is a degree of longitude or latitude further subdivided?
Into 60 minutes, then 60 seconds
How many degrees of longitude do you need to travel across to pass through one hour of time? (Through one time zone)
15 degrees longitude
How many zones are there?
Where and why were standard time zones first adopted?
In the U.S. to avoid confusion of time on a railroad that went through many time zones
What is the longitude of the International date line?
An area of land defined by one or more unique physical or cultural attributes
What do geographers who adopt the regional studies approach believe regarding regions?
Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, and the cultural landscape is the result.
Geographers using the regional studies approach argue that distinctive landscapes of different regions result from what two things?
Social relationships and physical process
Define formal region
An area which everyone shares one or more distinctive characteristics (also called uniform/homogeneous region)
Define functional region
An area organized around a node or focal point (also called nodal region)
Define vernacular region
An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity. It only exists mentally (also called perceptual region)
Give and explain an example of a formal region
Germany; they all speak German (answers may vary)
Give and explain an example of a functional region
A shopping center surrounded by neighborhoods; the focal point is the shopping center (answers may vary)
Give and explain an example of a vernacular region
The south; anyone could say a different meaning of where the south starts and ends (answers may vary)
Give two definitions of culture
1. To care about or worship something
2. To take care of or nurture something
Define cultural ecology
The study of how people interact with the environment
Define environmental determinism
The idea that the physical environment causes social development
The idea that the physical environment sets limits on human actions but that they have the ability to adjust and overcome these limits
How many major types of climates do geographers identify?
In what way does climate influence human activities?
Humans depend on rain for their crops; the amount of rainfall affects where people settle
List the four major biomes found naturally on Earth
What are two major problems concerning soil that geographers have?
Erosion and depletion of nutrients
A two dimensional or flat scale model of the Earth's surface or a part of it
The science or practice of drawing maps
Give two examples of the materials used for early mapmaking
Clay tablets and silk
Who first demonstrated the Earth was round and how?
Aristotle; the shadow the Earth cast on the moon during a solar eclipse was round, and different constellations could be seen from different regions
Who first used the term geography
List 3 of Eratosthenes' contributions to geography
1. Calculated the circumference of the Earth
2. Created the first map of the world
3. Divided the Earth into 5 climate regions
The ratio of a distance on the map to the corresponding real distance on the ground
What is the advantage of a map that shows a small portion of the Earth's surface? (a large scale map)
You can see local streets and cities instead of just countries and large cities
What is the advantage of a map that shows the entire globe? (a small scale map)
You can see the location of every land form and ocean on Earth
What are 4 things that typically become distorted on map projections?
Distance, size, shape, and direction
What are positives and negatives of Robinson maps?
Positive- good for displaying information on oceans
Negative- land areas are smaller than on other maps
What are positives and negatives of Mercator maps?
Positive- shape and direction are more accurate
Negative- size is distorted near the equator
Define remote sensing
The scanning of the Earth by satellite or high flying aircraft in order to obtain information about it
Define GIS (Geographic Information System)
A computerized data management system used to capture, store, manage, retrieve, analyze, and display spatial information
What is the smallest area on the surface of the Earth that can be scanned as a single pixel?
List several things geographers can map using remotely sensed data
-Ice over ocean in winter
A force or process that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope
How has modern technology played a role in globalization?
It's easier to make the world uniform and to spread money and products around the world
In what ways is globalization of culture manifest in the landscape?
The world is part of a global economy, but globalization led to more specialization at a more local level
In what ways has the communications revolution played a role in globalization?
It made it easier to talk to people around the world instantly, which made globalization speed up and grow
What are some reactions against globalism and globalization?
Intolerance of people with other beliefs or social forms and strong determination of groups to keep their local cultural traditions
The arrangement of a feature in a space
The frequency in which something occurs in a space
What are the opposite ends of the spectrum in concentration?
Clustered and dispersed
List the three different types of pattern
Irregular, geometric, and grid pattern
In what way does ethnicity play a role in geography?
There are pockets of ethnic groups within a large amount of a different ethnic group. For example, there are towns in Louisiana that speak French and many towns across the U.S. that speak Spanish and have their culture
In what way does sexual orientation affect geography?
Homosexuals are more common in areas where it is supported and legal to marry someone of the same gender
Define space-time compression
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Give an example of space-time compression
Columbus took 37 days to cross the Atlantic Ocean, and because of new technology like jets and airplanes Glenn took 5 hours to orbit the Earth 3 times
In the past, interactions between places required what? How has this changed?
Movement; now there are cars, planes, internet, and satellites to make communication faster and sometimes instant
Give some examples of things that slow down interaction among groups
Bodies of water or deserts in the way, language barriers, and difference in traditions
Explain distance decay
The further one group is from another, the less likely they are to interact
The place where an idea or innovation is originally from; the source
Define relocation diffusion
The spread of an idea through physical movement
Define hierarchical diffusion
The spread of an idea through a person of authority to other people
Define contagious diffusion
The rapid widespread idea throughout population from direct contact
Define stimulus diffusion
The underlying principle of a characteristic or idea spreads although the characteristic failed
Give an example of relocation diffusion
Settlers giving diseases or culture to the original land owners
Give an example of hierarchical diffusion
Political leaders telling people something
Give an example of contagious diffusion
Disease prevention methods against AIDS
Give an example of stimulus diffusion
Apple's creation of the computer mouse; their computers were rejected but the idea of a mouse was used
What are the two types of diffusion?
Relocation and expansion diffusion
What are the three types of expansion diffusion?
Stimulus, hierarchical, and contagious diffusion
The process by which a characteristic spreads across a space
Disagreed strongly with environmental determinism, one of the creators of possiblism
Long lot system
Originating in France; long skinny lots of land so everyone could be touching a water source and not one person was hogging it
Identify the 5 themes of human geography
Location, place, human-environment interaction, movement, and region
Define human geography
How human activity affects or is influenced by the Earth's surface
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP Human Geography: Chapter 1- Section 3&4 Notes
AP Human Geography Chapter 1
AP Human Geography Ch. 1 Key Issue #3
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
AP Human Geography- Chapter 1- basic concepts
AP Human Geography- Chapter 1- basic concepts
AP Human Geography Chapter 1
AP Human Geography Chapter 1 (ehh)