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Terms in this set (162)
A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce
permanently dark layer of the oceans below the photic zone
artificial system of classification
A method of classification based on observable physical traits and characteristics.
An organism that makes its own food
process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
A biologically generated aspect of the environment, such as predation or metabolic waste products, that affects living organisms. Biological factors usually operate in association with purely physical factors such as light and temperature.
The organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again
process in which chemical energy is used to produce carbohydrates
Process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments
Bacteria that convert the nitrates in soil or water to gaseous nitrogen and release it back into the atmosphere.
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
The lower part of the photic zone, where there is insufficient light for photosynthesis.
dissolved organic carbon
Organic (carbon-containing) molecules dissolved in water.
A taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.
Lacking an internal mechanism for regulating body heat
(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with absorption of heat
the ability to do work
Upper layer of a body of water through which sunlight can penetrate and support photosynthesis.
A change in a species over time
any nutritious substance that people or animals eat or drink, or that plants absorb, in order to maintain life and growth.
A community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
An organism that cannot make its own food.
a ranking system in which each thing is placed above or below others
the pressure within a blood vessel that tends to push water out of the vessel
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
more water than cells and solutes
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
First and largest category used to classify organisms
Any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms.
father of taxonomy and binomial nomenclature
event in which many types of living things become extinct at the same time
Amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time; the sum of all the energy-requiring biochemical reactions.
A change in a gene or chromosome.
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
natural system of classification
A method of classifying an organism based on its ancestry or origin.
The transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere
Compounds in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Portion of the marine biome that is shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate.
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.
An aspect of the physical environment that affects living organisms, such as light, salinity, or temperature.
An organism that eats producers
The name given to each species, consisting of its genus and its species label
A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.
The scientific study of how living things are classified
An organism at the apex of a trophic pyramid, usually a carnivore.
A representation of the distribution of biomass, numbers, or energy among trophic levels
compound other than chlorophyll that absorbs light at different wavelengths than chlorophyll
Grow in soil, on trees and on the bodies of turtles and frogs; smallest of all green plants
the production of light by means of a chemical reaction in an organism
total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
microscopic algae with calcium carbonate shells, form the base of many marine food webs
Depth at which light intensity reaches a level at which oxygen evolved from a photosynthesizing organism equals that consumed by its respiration.
Bacteria that can carry out photosynthesis
A type of microscopic plantlike protist with a hard outer wall
plant-like protist that causes red tide
Archaea that live in extreme environments.
A long, hairlike structure that grows out of a cell and enables the cell to move.
Two-part silicon shell that wraps around diatom
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)
accumulations of fast-growing, dense patches of harmful algae
any of various large, tough, brown seaweeds
tropical trees that grow along coasts and help maintain the health of coastal environments
The flow of energy in the epipelagic beginning with the phytoplankton, dissolved organic matter, and the smallest zooplankton, making energy available to the major food web
Algae with bodies consisting of more than one cell. Examples are kelp and Ulva.
All organisms that swim actively in open water, independent of currents
Conservation of nutrients vary from place to place
Microscopic, free-floating, autotrophic organisms that function as producers in aquatic ecosystems
the small-sized groups of phytoplankton with cells less than 2 micro meters in width
Informal name for a member of the plankton community.
Tiny algae and animals that float in water and are carried by waves and currents.
periods of explosive reproduction and growth of a particular plankton species.
Conical net of fine nylon or Dacron fabric used to collect plankton.
first producer of energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organisms
rate at which organic matter is created by producers in an ecosystem
The body of a plant-like organism that is not divided into leaves, roots, or stems.
Algae with bodies consisting of a single cell. Examples are diatoms and dinoflagellates.
small free-floating animals that form part of plankton
Describing coral species lacking symbiotic zooxanthellae and incapable of secreting calcium carbonate at a rate suitable for reef production.
A life cycle in which creatures are hatched in fresh water, migrate to salt water as adults, and then go back to fresh water in order to reproduce
a living thing that is not a human being or plant
segmented worms, earthworms, leeches
the phylum to which jointed-legged invertebrates belong, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans
Body plan in which only a single, imaginary line can divide the body into two equal halves.
The class of the phylum Mollusca that includes clams, oysters, and mussels.
Carnivores. Dogs, cats, weasels, bears, seals, raccoons, pandas, etc.
A connective tissue that is more flexible than bone and that protects the ends of bones and keeps them from rubbing together.
whales, dolphins, porpoises
A chemical that provides both toughness and flexibility
sharks and rays
The phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates.
Phylum that contains, jellyfish, hydra, anemone
specialized cells located in the tentacles and bodywalls of coloenterates; interior of cnidoblasts filled with stinging cells (nematocysts)
a large class of arthropods, including crabs and lobsters
Resistance of the air (technically a fluid) against the forward movement of an airplane.
radially symmetrical marine invertebrates including e.g. starfish and sea urchins and sea cucumbers
the process of using reflected sound waves to find objects; used by animals such as bats
A body covering, typically made of chitin, that provides support and protection
the process of obtaining oxygen from the environment and releasing carbon dioxide
snails and slugs
The thin boundary of living cells separating blood from water in a fish's (or other aquatic animal's) gills.
describing coral species possessing symbiotic zooxanthellae within their tissues and capable of secreting calcium carbonate at a rate suitable for reef production
An animal without a backbone
class of mammals
A free-swimming cnidarian with a bell-shaped body and tentacles
(snails, clams, squids, octopuses) have a soft body that in many species is protected by a hard shell
to shed hair, skin, or an outer layer periodically
suborder of cetacean including the baleen whales
Phylum of roundworms
A rod of tough, flexible material that runs the length of a creature's body, providing the majority of its support
suborder of cetaceans including the toothed whales
the accumulation of oxygen released by cyanobacteria beginning 2.6 billion years ago
Group of closely related classes
seals, sea lions, walrus
The sessile, tubular form of a cnidarian with a mouth and tentacles at one end and a basal disk at the other
the phylum of sponges
Symmetry about a central axis.
organ in marine birds and reptiles that removed excess salt
any group of fish stay together for social reasons
manatees and dugongs
An aquatic animal that sifts small food particles from the water.
The osteichthyan order that contains the cod, tuna, halibut, perch, and other species of bony fishes.
Member of the clade Urochordata, sessile marine chordates that lack a backbone.
An animal with a backbone
water vascular system
A system of fluid-filled tubes in an echinoderm's body.
Charles Darwin suggested that a driving force of evolution was
Small genetic variation
How do entirely new genetic traits arise?
What is a heterotroph?
An organism that consumes food from other organisms
What does a food web illustrate?
Photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms can be called either primary producers or heterotrophs because they make their own food (T/F)
What is the primary cause of oxygen depletion in the disphotic zone?
In freshwater, a marine animal would be:
Hypertonic to its surroundings
The photic zone in coastal ocean water is deeper than the photic zone in open ocean water (T/F)
Nearshore productivity is almost always more productive than open ocean productivity. (T/F)
Phytoplankton are responsible for how much of the surface ocean's carbohydrate production?
Between 90% and 96%
What is a frustule?
The rigid cell wall of a diatom
Which characteristic distinguishes most dinoflagellates from diatoms and coccolithophores?
What are the potential limiting factors for primary productivity?
Light and nutrients
How are seaweeds classified?
photosynthetic accessory pigments
Seaweeds are not plants (T/F)
What classification describes a group of animals that share similar architecture, level of complexity, and evolutionary history?
What needle-like structure provides a skeletal network for a sponge?
Coral and barnacles are both arthropods due to their hard outer exoskeletons. (T/F)
Polychaetes are the most successful of the worm phyla, being found in terrestrial, aquatic, and marine environments (T/F)
Which worm has a segmented body plan?
A(n)________ is a multicellular organism unable to synthesize its own food and often capable of movement
______ are generally soft-bodied animals that lack a rigid internal skeleton for the attachment of muscles, but many possess some sort of hard, protective outer covering
Nautiluses, octopuses, and squid belong to which class?
Why do squid use as a decoy defense mechanism?
Which phylum is found exclusively in marine habitats?
What is an ophiuroid?
Which of the following is not a fish?
Sea nettle jellyfish
We distinguish between two types of fishes: bony and ?
Some species of deep-sea shrimp _________ to veer off predators
Vomit light-making chemicals
_______ has loosely hinged jaws and can swallow prey larger than itself
The gulper eel
Female triplewart sea devils:
have parasitic males permanently attached to their bodies
The purpose of a swim bladder is to:
provide neutral buoyancy
Which taxonomic group do whales belong to?
The whale shark is the largest species of fish and eats:
Plankton near the surface of the water
Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning baleen whales?
The baleen whales are the smallest of the true whales because they only feed on plankton
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