Ch. 11 and 12 - Protestant Reformation and Religious Wars
Terms in this set (56)
Martin Luther's ideas that he posted on the chuch door at Wittenburg which questioned the Roman Catholic Church. This act began the Reformation
Act of Supremacy
Declared King Henry VIII (England) to be the head of the English church, rather than the Pope (1534). Made England officially Protestant, although many Catholic traditions continued within the English Church.
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
Church of England / Protestant. Origins: the separation of the Church of England under Henry VIII, and then his daughter, Elizabeth.
Art that originated in Rome and is associated with the Catholic Reformation- characterized by emotional intensity, strong self-confidence, spirit- meant to inspire the masses
Prominent French noble family that became the Royal family for about 200 years, starting with Henry IV, after Catherine de Medici's sons had no sons.
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
A 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation (A.K.A. the Counter-reformation)
Council of Trent
Series of Catholic Church meetings, in response to the Reformation. Church doctrines largely didn't change, but some practices were reformed (e.g. selling of indulgences was curbed)
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
The Duke of Alba
Dispatched by Philip II (Spain) to make an example of the Protestant rebels and suppress the revolt in the Spanish Netherlands. The Duke's Council of Blood reigned the land and publicly executed heretics, levied taxes on the Netherlands to pay for the suppression of their own revolt.
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree given at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal religious peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined/gave some rights to the French Protestants, within their own towns
Dynastic family. After Charles V, there was one Habsburg family line for Spain/America/Netherlands/Italian regions; another Habsburg line for the Holy Roman Empire
A series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 between the leading European powers (Habsburgs and the French) for control of the Italian states.
Holy Roman Empire
A Germanic empire located chiefly in central Europe that began with the coronation of Charlemagne as Roman emperor in AD 800 (or, according to some historians, with the coronation of Otto the Great, king of Germany, in a.d. 962) and ended with Napoleon's invasion of the HRE.
Calvinists in France
Index of Prohibited Books
Books that supported Protestantism or that were overly critical of the Catholic Church were banned. Possession could be severe, This was supposed to protect people from immoral or incorrect theological works, but included scientific writing.
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s (largely against Jewish and Muslim "converts")
The Institutes of Christian Religion
Calvin's formulation of Christian doctrine, which became a systematic theology for Protestantism.
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by the Catholic leader Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
The religious doctrine that Martin Luther developed; it differed from Catholicismin the doctrine of salvation, which Luther believed could be achieved by faith alone, not by good works; Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler; ended, temporarily, religious conflict in the HRE
1524-25: Peasants raided monasteries, pillaging, and burning. Luther first supported then opposed the peasants.
Bishop of Rome; head of the Catholic church in western Europe.
"Priesthood of all believers"
Luther said/realized that everyone should follow their calling and find their own faith through scripture, which meant that no one could achieve a higher level of spirituality because of a church position.
Protestantism / the Reformation
Christian movement that separated from the Roman Catholic Church in 16th century Europe.
A state of final purification after death and before entrance into heaven for those who died in God's friendship, but were only imperfectly purified; a final cleansing of human imperfection before one is able to enter the joy of heaven
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Buying and selling of church offices
"Invincible" group of ships sent by King Philip II of Spain to invade England in 1588; Armada was defeated by smaller, more maneuverable English "sea dogs" in the Channel; marked the beginning of English naval dominance and fall of Spanish dominance.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Following a wedding of Catherine's daughter and Henry of Navarre (Henry IV, later). 1572 when violence spiraled out of control against the Calvinists (Huguenots), it was a bloodbath and thousands of people lost their lives; Catherine de Medici supported it.
Thirty Years War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was a battle between the Hapsburg's, and their rivals within the HRE, Denmark, Sweden, and France.
Catholic doctrine of the Eucharist (ch. 14): that when the bread and wine (the elements) are consecrated by the priest at Mass, they are transformed into the actual Body and Blood of Christ.
Treaty of Westphalia
1648 agreement that ended the 30 Years' War; left the HRE a loose confederation of states; the emperor had no real power; marked the rise of France
very successful British monarchs (Henry VIII and Elizabeth I,possibly one of the greatest English monarchs in history); expanded central government authority and ruled as almost absolute monarchs, parliament was dominated by Tudors, furthered economic prosperity (transformed England into a leading world power), created Anglican Church (took power away from Pope), aroused nationalism, enjoyed immense popularity
(1594-1632) Swedish Lutheran King who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life in one of the battles.
1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.
Catherine of Aragon
1st wife of Henry VIII. Mother of Mary I. Henry's desire for a divorce from her precipitated England's break with Rome.
(1519-1556) - Hapsburg dynastic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and of extensive territories in Spain and the Netherlands. Ruled during the early Protestant Reformation.
Catherine de Medici
Politique ruler. Influenced her sons after the end of there father's rein. She permitted the Guise Family their own independent army, which they would use to take out the other religions residing within the French Borders. This led to the French Wars of Religion, including the St. Bartholome's Day Massacre.
(1547-1553) King Henry VIII's son. Protestant. Sickly, and became England's King at 9 years old. Since he wasn't capable of governing his country the Protestant church was soon brought in through his advisors Cromwell and Cranmer.
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
(1533-1603) Protestant Queen of England and Ireland between 1558 and 1603. Her rule followed the short lived "Bloody" Mary I. She was an absolute monarch and is considered to be one of the most successful rulers of all time.
(1589-1610) - Formerly Henry of Navarre; ascended the French throne as a convert to Catholicism. Surrived St. Bartholomew Day, signed Edict of Nantes, quoted as saying "Paris is worth a mass."
(1491-1556) Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits (1534); this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
(1527-1598) King of Spain from 1556 to 1598. Absolute monarch who helped lead the Counter Reformation by persecuting Protestants in his holdings.Briefly married to Mary I (England). Also sent the Spanish Armada against England (failed).
A Scottish Catholic queen who fled Scotland during its reformation and later convicted of planning an assassination of Elizabeth I; she was beheaded.
Adviser to Louis XIII (during the 30 Years' War). He encouraged the king to adopt absolutist policies. Laid the foundations for the political ascendancy of the French monarchy.
(1484-1531) Swiss humanist (Zurich, Switzerland) priest and follower of ideas of Erasmus. Founded the Protestant church in Switzerland. Much like Luther's but differed over nature of Communion. Believed it to be purely a symbolic act - commemorating the last supper and Christ's sacrifice for mankind. Killed in battle.
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who was Queen of England from 1553 to 1558 she was the wife of Philip II of Spain and when she restored Roman Catholicism to England many Protestants were burned at the stake as heretics
Leading seller of indulgences; Luther found offensive because he sold indulgences with the slogan "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs."
Phases of the Thirty Years' War
1. Bohemian (this is a civil war)
4. French (not Protestant, but sided w/ the Protestants against the Hapsburg Emperor)
Frederick the Wise
Elector of Saxony, protected Luther and sheltered him, under protection he translated Bible to German