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Vocabulary #3 - AP World History: Modern
Terms in this set (35)
Institutions that handled the financial transactions of a variety of merchants as well as of ecclesiastical and secular officials. They specialized in money changing, loans, and investments and encouraged the exchange of money and goods over a large distance. The largest of them were in Italy, Southern Germany, the Low Countries, France, and Britain were capitalistic, meaning they were controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
Bantu Speaking Peoples
Name given to a group of sub-Saharan African peoples whose migrations altered the society of sub-Saharan Africa through language, iron technology, and farming.
The European name for the outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, Europe, and North Africa in the fourteenth century.
A group of travelers, usually merchants or pilgrims, journeying together for safety in numbers while passing through deserts, hostile territory, etc.
Roadside inn where travelers could rest and recover from the day's journey. They supported the flow of commerce, information, and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa, and southeastern Europe, especially along the Silk Road.
A knight's code of honor in medieval Europe.
The practice of the Roman Catholic and other Christian churches of prohibiting participation in the sacraments to those who do not comply with church teachings or practices.
A political, economic, and social system based on the relationship between lord and vassal in order to provide protection.
In medieval Europe, a grant of land given in exchange for military or other services.
The belief held by many before the Scientific Revolution that the earth is the center of the universe.
Architecture of the twelfth-century Europe, featuring stained-glass windows, flying buttresses, tall spires, and pointed arches.
Ancient city that supported a Bantu-speaking Shona population of 10,000 to 20,000. With an economy based on cattle husbandry, crop cultivation, and the trade of gold on the coast of the Indian Ocean, it was the heart of a thriving trading empire from the 11th to the 15th centuries.
Storytellers and historians of sub-Saharan Africa who carried on oral traditions.
Organization founded by north German towns and German merchant communities abroad to protect their mutual trading interests. The league dominated commercial activity in northern Europe from the 13th to the 15th century.
Collection of states situated between the Niger River and Lake Chad (modern day northern Nigeria) that were occasionally interconnected through loose alliances. They had no central authority, were never combined in wars of conquest, and were therefore frequently subject to domination from outside. Isolated until the 14th century, they were then introduced to Islam by missionaries from Mali.
Oasis city located in modern day western China that for over 2000 years served as a trading post and commanded historical caravan routes along the Silk Road. At the convergence point of widely varying cultures and empires, the city has been under the rule of the Chinese, Turkic, Mongol, and Tibetan empires and has also been the site of a number of battles between various groups of people on the steppes.
A Mongol ruler
A triangular sail attached to a short mast.
Commodities traded along the Silk Roads that were typically compact with high value due enormous demand and high prices that were ideal for trade and long-distance transportation.
A document written in England in 1215 that granted certain rights to nobles; later these rights came to be extended to all classes.
Economic and social system of medieval Europe under which peasants' land tenure and production were regulated, and local justice and taxation were administered.
Mongol Peace (Pax Mongolica)
The period from about 1250 to 1350 in which the Mongols ensured the safety of Eurasian trade and travel
A representative assembly.
The revival of classical art and learning in Europe beginning about 1300 and continuing to about 1600.
City that became the capital of the empire of Timur (Tamerlane), who made the it the most important economic and cultural center in Central Asia. The city prospered from its location on the Silk Road between China and the Mediterranean and was noted for being an Islamic center for scholarly study.
A peasant tenant farmer in medieval Europe/Condition in which a peasant tenant farmer was bound to a hereditary plot of land and to the will of his landlord.
A society that is based on the authority of kinship groups rather than on a central government
A dry grassland/The skill of political survival and dominance in the world of steppe nomads; it involved the knowledge of tribal and clan structure and often used assassinations to accomplish its goals.
Sultanate of Malacca
Dynasty that ruled the great entrepôt of Malacca (Melaka) and its dependencies and provided Malay history with its golden age. By the 1430s the city had become the preeminent commercial emporium in Southeast Asia, resorted to alike by local traders, Indian, Arab, and Persian merchants, and Chinese trade missions.
Region where Africans and Arabs mixed to create a unique identity. Eventually, the entire coastal area blossomed into a number of important and independent trading cities which included Mombasa, Mogadishu, and Zanzibar. At their height from the 12th to 15th century CE, these city-states traded with African tribes as far away as Zimbabwe as well as the period's great trading nations across the Indian Ocean in Arabia, Persia, India, and China.
The payment of a tax in the form of goods and labor by subject peoples.
Alphabet that flourished through the 15th century in Central Asia and parts of Iran, but it was eventually replaced by the Arabic script in the 16th century. In the early 13th century, under Genghis Khan, the Mongols created a vertical script based on it, which was also adopted by many Turkic-speaking peoples and is related to the alphabets of Western Asia.
The practice of lending money and charging an interest rate that was prohibited by the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages. With the expansion of trade in the 13th century and the Protestant Reformation in the 15th century, the demand for credit increased, and the practice became more acceptable.
In medieval Europe, a person who pledged military or other service to a lord in exchange for a gift of land or other privilege.
Mongol kingdoms, in particular the subdivisions of Genghis Khan's empire ruled by his heirs.
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