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AP World History Modern: ALL Vocab Words
Terms in this set (424)
Ritual practice based on the belief that deceased family members have a continued existence, take an interest in the affairs of the world, and possess the ability to influence the fortune of the living. The goal is to ensure the dead's continued well-being and positive disposition towards the living and sometimes to ask for special favors or assistance. The social or nonreligious function of it is "to cultivate kinship values like filial piety, family loyalty, and continuity of the family lineage.
Quick-maturing, drought resistant rice that can allow two harvests of sixty days each in one growing season. Originally introduced from Vietnam it was later sent to China as a tribute gift.
Form of Buddhism that combines the essential teachings of Mahayana Buddhism with Tantric and Shamanic, and material from an ancient religion called Bon. Practices feature rituals and spiritual practices such as the use of mantras and yogic techniques. It spread primarily due to the influence of the Mongol Yuan dynasty.
Powerful state in South East Asia, formed by people of the same name, lasting from 802 CE to 1431 CE. At its peak, it covered much of what today is Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and southern Vietnam.
The military government established in Japan in which the emperor became a religious figurehead, while real power was concentrated in the military under the shogun.
Mandate of Heaven
The Chinese concept that the deity granted a dynasty the right to rule and took away that right if the dynasty did not rule wisely.
A medieval change in Hinduism that saw an increased emphasis on the mutual intense emotional attachment and love of a devotee toward a personal god and of the god for the devotee. It empowered those on the lowest rungs of Indian society, provided impetus for the growth of vernacular literature, and influence the development of Sikhism.
A group of government officials headed by an administrator.
The code of honor of the samurai of Japan
Muslim dynasties that existed between the 13th and 16th centuries. The territory was mainly confined to the northern part of India, though at its peak, it was in control of much of the Indian subcontinent. It came to an end with the foundation of the Mughal Empire.
The rare development of innovation or technology independent of cultural diffusion.
Title granted to students who passed the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature; they became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office.
Collection of Buddhist traditions (I.e. Zen, Pure Land, Nichiren, and Tibetan) that teach anyone can aspire to achieve awakening and thereby become a Bodhisattva (a potential Buddha). As it spread beyond India, it typically adopted the distinct local cultural characteristics of China (like Confucianism and Daoism), Japan, Mongolia, Tibet, and Korea.
A blend of two or more cultures or cultural traditions.
Japanese military leaders under the bakufu.
Pertaining to a social system in which the father is the head of the family.
A Japanese feudal lord in charge of an army of samurai.
In China, respect for one's parents and other elders.
A series of rulers from the same family.
In China, a method of breaking and binding women's feet was seen as a sign of beauty and social position and that confined them to the household.
Series of waterways in eastern and northern China built to enable successive Chinese regimes to transport surplus grain from the agriculturally rich Yangtze (Chang) and Huai river valleys to feed the capital cities and large standing armies in northern China.
Paper money that was first used in China in the 9th century AD. Originally it was called 'flying monkey' (fei-chien) because it could blow out of your hand. To start with it was used by merchants as a note of forwarding tax payments. Real paper money backed by deposited money started in the 10th century
The ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty; it was the last dynasty in China led by ethnic Hans.
The Japanese formal language term for ritual suicide. Hara-kiri is the common language term. Hara-kiri, which literally means "stomach cutting", is a particularly painful method of self-destruction.
The traditional Japanese religion based on veneration of ancestors and spirits of nature.
Large Chinese sailing ships especially designed for long-distance travel during the Tang and Song dynasties
Major form of Buddhism prevalent in Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos. The name literally means the Way of the Elders and is so named because of its strict adherence to the original teachings and rules of monastic discipline expounded by the Buddha.
Custom in Hinduism of a higher caste widow throwing herself on the funeral pyre of her husband.
Patrilineal clans that rose to prominence during the 6th to 12th centuries in large parts of India and some parts of Pakistan. Several of them played a significant role in many regions of central and northern India until the 20th century.
A philosophy that blended Confucianism with Buddhism and Daoism.
In Asia, a seasonal wind that brings warm, moist air from the oceans in the summer and cooler, dry air from inland in winter.
The mode of life pertaining to persons living in seclusion from the world, under religious vows and subject to a fixed rule, such as monks, friars, and nuns. Some Buddhists and Christians continue the practice.
The 'divine wind" credited by the Japanese with preventing the Mongol invasion of Japan during the thirteenth century
Southeast Asians who traveled the Indian Ocean; by 500 C.E., they had colonized Madagascar, introducing the cultivation of the banana.
The rule of the shoguns.
The Mongol led dynasty of China from 1271 to 1368.
Second of the two great dynasties of the Muslim empire. It overthrew the Umayyad caliphate in 750 CE and reigned until it was destroyed by the Mongol invasion in 1258. The Abbasid capital was Baghdad.
A Muslim ruled region in what is now Spain, established in the 8th century A.D.
Complex designs typical of Islamic art, combining intertwining plants and geometric patterns.
A navigational instrument used to determine latitude by measuring the position of the stars.
In Incan society, a clan or community that worked together on projects required by the ruler.
Pre-Columbian settlement located on the Mississippi River (near modern day St. Louis) that was the largest city in North America north of Mexico, with as many as 20,000 people living there at its peak. The city fell into decline after 1200, around the time that a flood occurred, becoming abandoned by 1400.
The chief Muslim political and religious leader.
Aztec clans that supplied labor and warriors to leaders.
Platforms of twisted vines and mud that served the Aztecs as floating gardens and extended their agricultural land.
Pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the San Juan Basin of the American Southwest from the 9th to the 12th century CE. They built epic works of public architecture - a feat which required long-term planning and significant social organization.
Dar al Islam
A term representing the political and religious unity of various Islamic groups.
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design.
Literally "people of the book"; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus & Buddhists.
A collection of the sayings and deeds of Muhammad.
House of Wisdom
The Grand Library of Baghdad that became one of the greatest centers of learning in the medieval world. Built primarily as a library, it became the home of ancient and modern wisdom during the Islamic Golden Age, preserving important works of scholarship from across Europe and the Middle East.
Islamic holy war.
Head tax paid by all nonbelievers in Islamic territories.
Turkic military slaves who formed part of the army of the Abbasid Caliphate in the ninth and tenth centuries.
Non-Arab converts to Islam.
The name given to themselves by the Aztec people.
Place (in modern day Colorado) where Native Americans survived using a combination of hunting, gathering, and subsistence farming of crops such as corn, beans, and squash. They built their first pueblos sometime after 650, and by the end of the 12th century, they began to construct the massive cliff dwellings.
Were a Chalcolithic (copper age) mound-building Native American culture that flourished in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1500 A.D., varying regionally.
A labor system used by Andean societies in which community members shared work owed to rulers and the religious community.
Name given to those people who built mounds in a large area from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Mississippi River to the Appalachian Mts. The greatest concentrations of mounds are found in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys.
People of the Book
A term applied by Islamic governments to Muslims, Christians, and Jews in reference to the fact that all three religions had a holy book.
Andean society also known as the Inca.
A system of knotted cords of different sizes and colors used by the Incas for keeping records.
Ruling military family of the Oğuz Turkic tribes that invaded southwestern Asia in the 11th century and eventually founded a Sunni Muslim empire that included Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, and most of Iran. Their advance marked the beginning of Turkish power in the Middle East.
The body of law that governs Muslim society.
The branch of Islam that holds that the leader of Islam must be a descendant of Muhammad's family.
Muslims who attempt to reach Allah through mysticism. By educating the masses and deepening the spiritual concerns of the Muslims, they have played an important role in the formation of Muslim society and have been further responsible for a large-scale missionary activity all over the world.
The branch of Islam that believes that the Muslim community should select its leaders; they are the largest branch of Islam.
Type of farming invented by the Inca people that made the cultivation of crops in hilly or mountainous regions possible. It is commonly used in Asia by rice-growing countries now such as Vietnam, Philippines, and Indonesia.
The community of all Muslims believers.
Agricultural technique developed by pre-Hispanic people in the Andes region of South America. The system ensures both the collection of water and its subsequent drainage, combines raised beds with irrigation channels to prevent damage by soil erosion during floods, and creates a microclimate that prevents damage from insects and frosts.
Generals who founded their own state in Egypt and Syria from the thirteenth to early sixteenth centuries.
Institutions that handled the financial transactions of a variety of merchants as well as of ecclesiastical and secular officials. They specialized in money changing, loans, and investments and encouraged the exchange of money and goods over a large distance. The largest of them were in Italy, Southern Germany, the Low Countries, France, and Britain were capitalistic, meaning they were controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
Bantu Speaking Peoples
Name given to a group of sub-Saharan African peoples whose migrations altered the society of sub-Saharan Africa through language, iron technology, and farming.
The European name for the outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, Europe, and North Africa in the fourteenth century.
A group of travelers, usually merchants or pilgrims, journeying together for safety in numbers while passing through deserts, hostile territory, etc.
Roadside inn where travelers could rest and recover from the day's journey. They supported the flow of commerce, information, and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa, and southeastern Europe, especially along the Silk Road.
A knight's code of honor in medieval Europe.
The practice of the Roman Catholic and other Christian churches of prohibiting participation in the sacraments to those who do not comply with church teachings or practices.
A political, economic, and social system based on the relationship between lord and vassal in order to provide protection.
In medieval Europe, a grant of land given in exchange for military or other services.
The belief held by many before the Scientific Revolution that the earth is the center of the universe.
Architecture of the twelfth-century Europe, featuring stained-glass windows, flying buttresses, tall spires, and pointed arches.
Ancient city that supported a Bantu-speaking Shona population of 10,000 to 20,000. With an economy based on cattle husbandry, crop cultivation, and the trade of gold on the coast of the Indian Ocean, it was the heart of a thriving trading empire from the 11th to the 15th centuries.
Storytellers and historians of sub-Saharan Africa who carried on oral traditions.
Organization founded by north German towns and German merchant communities abroad to protect their mutual trading interests. The league dominated commercial activity in northern Europe from the 13th to the 15th century.
Collection of states situated between the Niger River and Lake Chad (modern day northern Nigeria) that were occasionally interconnected through loose alliances. They had no central authority, were never combined in wars of conquest, and were therefore frequently subject to domination from outside. Isolated until the 14th century, they were then introduced to Islam by missionaries from Mali.
Oasis city located in modern day western China that for over 2000 years served as a trading post and commanded historical caravan routes along the Silk Road. At the convergence point of widely varying cultures and empires, the city has been under the rule of the Chinese, Turkic, Mongol, and Tibetan empires and has also been the site of a number of battles between various groups of people on the steppes.
A Mongol ruler
A triangular sail attached to a short mast.
Commodities traded along the Silk Roads that were typically compact with high value due enormous demand and high prices that were ideal for trade and long-distance transportation.
A document written in England in 1215 that granted certain rights to nobles; later these rights came to be extended to all classes.
Economic and social system of medieval Europe under which peasants' land tenure and production were regulated, and local justice and taxation were administered.
Mongol Peace (Pax Mongolica)
The period from about 1250 to 1350 in which the Mongols ensured the safety of Eurasian trade and travel
A representative assembly.
The revival of classical art and learning in Europe beginning about 1300 and continuing to about 1600.
City that became the capital of the empire of Timur (Tamerlane), who made the it the most important economic and cultural center in Central Asia. The city prospered from its location on the Silk Road between China and the Mediterranean and was noted for being an Islamic center for scholarly study.
A peasant tenant farmer in medieval Europe/Condition in which a peasant tenant farmer was bound to a hereditary plot of land and to the will of his landlord.
A society that is based on the authority of kinship groups rather than on a central government
A dry grassland/The skill of political survival and dominance in the world of steppe nomads; it involved the knowledge of tribal and clan structure and often used assassinations to accomplish its goals.
Sultanate of Malacca
Dynasty that ruled the great entrepôt of Malacca (Melaka) and its dependencies and provided Malay history with its golden age. By the 1430s the city had become the preeminent commercial emporium in Southeast Asia, resorted to alike by local traders, Indian, Arab, and Persian merchants, and Chinese trade missions.
Region where Africans and Arabs mixed to create a unique identity. Eventually, the entire coastal area blossomed into a number of important and independent trading cities which included Mombasa, Mogadishu, and Zanzibar. At their height from the 12th to 15th century CE, these city-states traded with African tribes as far away as Zimbabwe as well as the period's great trading nations across the Indian Ocean in Arabia, Persia, India, and China.
The payment of a tax in the form of goods and labor by subject peoples.
Alphabet that flourished through the 15th century in Central Asia and parts of Iran, but it was eventually replaced by the Arabic script in the 16th century. In the early 13th century, under Genghis Khan, the Mongols created a vertical script based on it, which was also adopted by many Turkic-speaking peoples and is related to the alphabets of Western Asia.
The practice of lending money and charging an interest rate that was prohibited by the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages. With the expansion of trade in the 13th century and the Protestant Reformation in the 15th century, the demand for credit increased, and the practice became more acceptable.
In medieval Europe, a person who pledged military or other service to a lord in exchange for a gift of land or other privilege.
Mongol kingdoms, in particular the subdivisions of Genghis Khan's empire ruled by his heirs.
Rule by a king or queen whose power is not limited by a constitution.
Akbar the Great
(1542-1605) Emperor of India (1556-1605) generally regarded as the greatest ruler of the Mughal Empire. He built up the military and administrative structure of the dynasty and followed policies of cooperation and toleration with the Hindu majority.
Peoples of the Russian Empire who lived outside the farming villages, often as herders, mercenaries, or outlaws. They led the conquest of Siberia in the 16th and 17th centuries.
A practice of the Ottoman Empire to take Christian boys from their home communities to serve as janissaries.
Religion initiated by Akbar in Mughal India that blended elements of the many faiths of the subcontinent; key to efforts to reconcile Hindu and Muslims in India, but failed
The belief of absolute rulers that their right to govern is granted by God.
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the assembly in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
Aristocratic elites who negotiated policies with monarchs, were exempt from taxation, and received promotions and advancement in the military mainly through status and patronage, rather than through leadership or military skills.
The bloodless overthrow of English King James I and the placement of William and Mary on the English throne.
(the Church of Holy Wisdom), was an early Christian Church and later an Eastern Orthodox church which was transformed into a mosque in 1453 by the Turks. It is located in Istanbul, Turkey.
A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain.
A heavy portable matchlock gun invented during the 15th century. It was a forerunner of the rifle and other long-arm firearms.
Members of the Ottoman army, often slaves, who were taken from Christian lands. Their control of artillery and firearms gave them prominence over the aristocratic Turkish cavalry. Their extreme conservatism frustrated reform of the Ottoman Empire.
Peoples from northeastern Asia who founded China's Qing dynasty.
The recapture of Muslim-held lands in Spain by Christian forces; it was completed in 1492.
Muslim state (1526-1858) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries before political fragmentation caused decline.
A sovereign state whose people share a common culture and national identity.
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia around 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire it was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453-1922
A government with a king or queen whose power is limited by the power of a parliament.
Empire established in China by Manchus who overthrew the Ming Empire in 1644. At various times they also controlled Manchuria, Mongolia, Turkestan, and Tibet. Their last emperor was overthrown in 1911.
Imperial dynasty of Russia that ruled from 1613 to 1917.
Iranian/Persian kingdom (1502-1722) established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran a Shi'ite state.
Monotheistic religion founded in the Punjab in the 15th century by Guru Nanak. It combines elements of Hinduism and Islam, accepting the Hindu concepts of karma and reincarnation but rejecting the caste system, and has one sacred scripture, the Adi Granth.
A people, language, kingdom, and empire in western Sudan in West Africa. At its height in the sixteenth century, the empire stretched from the Atlantic to the land of the Hausa and was a major player in the trans-Saharan trade.
King or sovereign especially of a Muslim state.
The most sacred site in the Inca religion that was considered the very center of the Inca world. The site was also known as the Golden Enclosure and was dedicated to the highest gods in the Inca pantheon. The interior and exterior walls of the structure were covered in gold.
A mausoleum located in Agra, India. The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahān commissioned it as a mausoleum for his favorite wife. It is generally considered the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements of Persian and Indian.
A system for collecting taxes and other state revenues from the population. Under this system, the state transfers the right of collection to private individuals or to groups of merchants called tax farmers in exchange for a guaranteed fee.
Grant of land or revenue by the Ottoman sultan to an individual in compensation for his services. The system became the basis of Ottoman military and administrative organization in conquered territories.
(1603—1868) Feudal military dictatorship of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city of Edo, now Tokyo. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo castle until the Meiji Restoration.
Huge palace built for French King Louis XIV south of Paris. The palace symbolized both French power and the triumph of royal authority over the French nobility.
An aristocrat on the Indian Subcontinent, typically hereditary, who held enormous tracts of land and held control over the peasants, from whom the they reserved the right to collect taxes (often for military purposes).
The recapture of Muslim-held lands in Spain by Christian forces; it was completed in 1492.
Edict issued in 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions. As a result over 200,000 Jews converted to Catholicism and between 40,000 and 100,000 were expelled.
An economic system based on private ownership and opportunity for profit-making.
Premier merchant sailing ship of Mediterranean powers during the 14th-17th centuries that was usually built with three masts, the mainmast and foremast being rigged with square sails and the mizzenmast rigged with a fore-and-aft triangular lateen sail.
Woody shrub that is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrate.
Movement within the Catholic Church that occurred in response to the Protestant Reformation. It reaffirmed Catholic beliefs and promoted education
The exchange of food crops, livestock, and disease (& people) between the Eastern and Western hemispheres after the voyages of Columbus.
Council of Trent
Meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant Reformers.
The concept of God common to the scientific revolution; the deity was believed to have set the world in motion and then allowed it to operate by natural laws.
Research based on the collection of data.
Encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1766 by some of the most prominent philosophers. It originally consisted of 28 volumes and covered everything then known about the sciences, technology, & history. It criticized the Church and government and praised religious tolerance.
A philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that was based on reason and the concept that education and training could improve humankind and society.
Dutch sailing vessel designed as a cargo vessel to facilitate transoceanic delivery with the maximum of space and crew efficiency. The ship became a significant factor in the 17th-century rise of the Dutch seaborne empire.
Region of western India famous for trade and manufacturing; its inhabitants exported cotton textiles and indigo to the Middle East and Europe in exchange for gold and silver. They eventually traded eastward to Malacca and helped spread Islam among East Indian traders.
A printed version of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany in the fifteenth century.
The concept that the sun is the center of the universe.
Any of the Protestants (French Calvinists) in France in the 16th and 17th centuries, many of whom suffered severe persecution for their faith. The Edict of Nantes (1598) granted them tolerance in France and ended the French civil wars of religion.
A document whose purchase was said to grant the bearer the forgiveness of sins.
An economic concept that holds that the government should not interfere with or regulate business and industries.
Mughal emperor Aurangzeb's conflict with forces led by the Hindu warrior Shivaji from 1659-1680. Shivaji was successful in establishing a strong Maratha empire in the Deccan region of India using guerilla tactics and flanking attacks to gain weapons, forts, and territory.
A European economic policy of the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries that held that there was a limited amount of wealth available, and that each country must adopt policies to obtain as much wealth as possible for itself; key to the attainment of wealth was the acquisition of colonies.
The portion of the trans-Atlantic trade that involved the transportation of Africans from Africa to the Americas.
Invasion of the Songhai Empire by Morocco (in an attempt seize gold deposits) in 1590 that culminated with the Battle of Tondibi (1591). Moroccan forces won despite being outnumbered due to their use of gunpowder and harquebuses.
Principles that govern nature.
(from 31 October 1517) The Disputation of Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences, that challenged the teachings of the Church on the nature of penance, the authority of the pope and the usefulness of indulgences. They sparked a theological debate that would result in the Reformation and the birth of the Lutheran, Reformed, and Anabaptist traditions within Christianity.
An extension of the Italian Renaissance to the nations of northern Europe; the Northern Renaissance took on a more religious nature than the Italian Renaissance.
A passage through the North American continent that was sought by early explorers to North America as a route to trade with the east.
French Enlightenment social philosophers.
The belief of Protestant reformer John Calvin that God had chosen some people for heaven and others for hell.
A religious movement begun by Martin Luther in 1517 that attempted to reform the beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church; it resulted in the formation of new Christian denominations.
A European intellectual movement in the sixteenth century that established the basis for modern science.
Merchants who contributed to the commercial expansion of the city-states of the east African coast and its related Indian Ocean trade. They dealt in cotton cloth and beads from India; spices from SE Asia; horses from Arabia and Ethiopia; pearls from the Red Sea; slaves, gold, and ivory from Ethiopia; and grain, opium, and dyes from Aden.
Series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, during the minority of Louis XIV. It was in part an attempt to check the growing power of royal government; its failure prepared the way for the absolutism of Louis XIV's personal reign.
Thirty Years War
War from 1618 to 1648 between German Protestants and their allies against the Holy Roman emperor and Spain; caused great destruction. It reduced the German population by almost 60% and German prosperity and power for a full century. The treaty that ended the conflict granted political independence to the Protestant Netherlands. The war established the principle of territorial toleration.
Wealth of Nations
Published on March 9, 1776, by Adam Smith; clearly written account of political economy at the dawn of the Industrial Revolution that is widely considered to be the first modern work in the field of economics. The work is also the first comprehensive defense of free market policies.
Queen of Angola (circa 1581-1663) who fought against the slave trade and European influence in the 17th century. Known for being an astute diplomat and visionary military leader, she resisted Portuguese invasion and slave raids for 30 years. A skilled negotiator, she allied herself with the Dutch and pitted them against the Portuguese in order to resist Portuguese domination.
West African kingdom (modern day Ghana) that became more powerful as a result of participating in the Atlantic slave trade as well as overland trade with states across the Sahara.
Battle of Diu
Naval battle fought in 1509 in the Arabian Sea, in the port of Diu, India, between the Portuguese Empire and a joint fleet of Muslim powers. The Portuguese victory eased their strategy of controlling the Indian Ocean trade route down the Cape of Good Hope, circumventing the traditional spice route controlled by the Arabs and the Venetians through the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.
An economic system based on private ownership and opportunity for profit-making.
Crop that is cultivated to be sold to gain profit from the sale. Europeans found that they could adapt the plantation or hacienda model and coerced labor structure to capitalize on cash crops such as sugar cane, coffee, tobacco, indigo, rice, and eventually cotton.
The cassava (or manioc) is a woody shrub that is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrate.
The expansion of trade and commerce in Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Any of the leaders in the Spanish conquest of America, especially of Mexico and Peru, in the 16th century. Conquistadors considered themselves the new nobility, but given more to fighting and the search for gold than to governance, they were quickly replaced by administrators and settlers from Spain.
Series of military conflicts between the Cossacks and the states claiming dominion over their territories, namely the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Russian Empire during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. Both states attempted to exert control over the independent-minded Cossacks.
A term used in colonial Spanish America to describe a person born in the Americas of European parents.
Dutch East India Company
Trading company founded in the Dutch Republic (present-day Netherlands) in 1602 to protect that state's trade in the Indian Ocean and to assist in the Dutch war of independence from Spain. The company prospered through most of the 17th century as the instrument of the powerful Dutch commercial empire in the East Indies (present-day Indonesia). It was dissolved in 1799.
Western learning embraced by some Japanese in the eighteenth century.
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.
Early Jesuit missionary often called the Apostle to the Indies. He was an associate of St Ignatius of Loyola, with whom he took the vow founding the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). From 1541 he traveled through India, Japan, and the East Indies, making many converts.
Large heavily armed ship used to carry silver from the New World colonies to Spain; basis for convoy system utilized by Spain for transportation of bullion.
A large estate with a dwelling-house, originally given by monarchs in Latin America as a reward for services done. Such estates are known as estancias in Argentina and fazendas in Brazil.
Merchants from the Indonesian island of Java, many of them ethnic Chinese, who interacted with Dutch traders in the 16th and 17th centuries to control the trade of spices such as cloves and nutmeg.
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic missionary and educational order founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1534.
Joint stock company
A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors.
Kingdom of Kongo
West African state that became a centralized power in the region of modern-day Angola. The capital, Mbanza and surrounding areas were densely settled which allowed the king to have access to the manpower and supplies necessary to rule. Portuguese exploration in the area led to the conversion of the king and most of the nobles to Christianity.
An economic concept that holds that the government should not interfere with or regulate business and industries.
(in the New World) Mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. European settlers and their West African slaves transmitted the disease to the Native Americans and it quickly spread to the Carolinas, Maryland, Georgia, Alabama and Florida and then west to Ohio, Missouri and the Gulf of Mexico.
A group of formerly enslaved Africans and their descendants who gained their freedom by fleeing chattel enslavement and running to the safety and cover of the remote mountains or the dense overgrown tropical terrains near the plantations. Many of the groups are found in the Caribbean and, in general, throughout the Americas.
(in the New World) Highly contagious infectious disease caused by a virus. It killed two-thirds of the natives of Cuba in 1529. Two years later, it was responsible for the deaths of half of the population of Honduras, and then ravaged Mexico, Central America, and the Inca civilization.
In the Spanish colonies, persons of mixed European and Indian descent.
(or King Philip's War) Armed conflict between English colonists and the American Indians of New England in the 17th century. The uprising lasted 14 months and was the last major effort to drive the English out of New England. The wide scale destruction caused such devastating financial losses that the English expansion in the region completely stopped for 50 years.
The portion of the trans-Atlantic trade that involved the transportation of Africans from Africa to the Americas.
In the Spanish and Portuguese colonies, a person of mixed African and European descent.
Arab maritime merchants who repeatedly traveled to the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, the west coast of India, and even to East Africa to engage in profitable trade. Muscat, their port city, had a fine deep-water harbor and was located at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, which were also to Muscat's advantage over the trade of the Persian Gulf.
In the Spanish colonies, those who were born in Europe.
Series of revolts from 1645-1692 in which Pueblo Indians fought colonization and conversion to Catholicism by the Spanish. One revolt in 1680 succeeded in overthrowing Spanish rule in New Mexico for 12 years. Captured Indians were tried in Spanish courts and received severe punishments - hanging, whipping, dismemberment (of hands or feet), or condemnation to slavery.
In the Spanish colonies, a replacement for the encomienda system that limited the number of working hours for laborers and provided for fair wages.
(in the New World) Extremely contagious and deadly virus for which there is no known cure. Among the "new" infectious diseases brought by the Europeans, smallpox was one of the most feared because of the high mortality rates in infected Native Americans.
Treaty of Tordesillas
A 1494 treaty in which the pope divided unexplored territories between Spain and Portugal.
The eighteenth-century trade network between Europe, Africa, and the Americas.
A political unit ruled by a viceroy that was the basis of organization of the Spanish colonies.
Wealth of Nations
Published in 1776, by Adam Smith, it is a clearly written account of political economy at the dawn of the Industrial Revolution that is widely considered to be the first modern work in the field of economics. The work is also the first comprehensive defense of free market policies.
Men and women who agitated for a complete end to slavery. Their pressure helped end the British transatlantic slave trade (1808), slavery in British colonies (1834), and was a factor that led to the American Civil War (1861-1865).
Rebellion in the colonies of British North America inspired by democratic and other Enlightenment ideals. Its success led to the establishment of the first republic in modern times and became a model for a number of revolutions that followed.
The emergence of various movements of national consciousness within the territories of the Ottoman Empire. The ultimate goal was the creation of a nation-state with religion playing an integral part in forming each national identity.
In France, the class of merchants and artisans who were members of the Third Estate and initiators of the French Revolution; in Marxist theory, a term referring to factory owners.
The money and equipment needed to engage in industrialization.
A manufacturing method in which the stages of the manufacturing process are carried out in private homes.
Declaration of Independence
Document that set forth the American colonists' reasons for separation from Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson, the principal author, incorporated Enlightenment ideas such as "social contract" into the declaration.
Declaration of the Rights of Women and of the Female Citizen
A statement of the rights of women written by Olympe de Gouges in response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
A statement of political and private property rights adopted by the French National Assembly during the French Revolution.
The fencing of pastureland in England prior to the Industrial Revolution.
The divisions of society in prerevolutionary France.
A belief in the political, economic and cultural equality of women. Many of its proponents in the early modern era specifically noted access to education, property and the ballot as critical to women's equality.
First Industrial Revolution
(1760-1840) Era of mechanization which began in England in the late 18th century. The initial focus of industrialization was on textiles and understanding and using different energy sources. With the advent of the steam engine agrarian societies gave way to urbanization and saw the increased use of railroads and steamships.
Fossil Fuel Revolution
The transition from water, wind, plant, and animal power to coal, petroleum, and natural gas beginning in the 1800s. The new form of mineral-intensive economy pioneered in Britain during the late 1700s and imitated in the U.S. has led to environmental and human costs.
The temporary union of the northern portion of South America after independence movements led by Simón Bólivar; ended in 1830.
Series of conflicts between 1791 and 1804 between Haitian slaves, colonists, the armies of the British and French colonizers, and a number of other parties. Haiti ultimately won independence from France and thereby became the first country to be founded by former slaves.
The establishment of colonial empires.
The most radical and ruthless of the political groups formed in the wake of the French Revolution, and in association with Maximilien Robespierre they instituted the Reign of Terror from 1793-94.
An Enlightenment philosophy that favored civil rights, the protection of private property, and representative government.
Document written by Simon Bolivar in 1815 that communicated his views on the independence movement in Venezuela and the form of government under which the country should operate. Similar to the American Declaration of Independence it communicated the reasons to push for independence. Bolivar also states that it is important for governments to be established with the consent of the governed.
A member of a Polynesian group that settled New Zealand about 800 C.E.
Rights that belong to every person and that no government may take away.
Ideology based on the premise that an individual's loyalty and devotion to the nation-state surpass other individual or group interests. The rise of nationalism in Europe in the 19th century and then Asia and Africa in the 20th century witnessed the rise and struggle of powerful national movements.
A form of political organization under which a relatively homogeneous people inhabits a sovereign state.
Form of nationalism, likely inspired and created as a reaction to European ideas of nationalism and the growing Western involvement in the Ottoman Empire. It promoted equality and the acceptance of all separate ethnicities in the Empire regardless of their religion.
The call for reforms with colonial Spain by native Filipinos (1880-1886). Goals included Filipino representation in the Spanish parliament, secularization of the clergy, legalization of Spanish and Filipino equality, creation of a public school system independent of religious friars, abolition of labor service and forced sale of local products to the government, a guarantee of basic freedoms, and equal opportunity for Filipinos to enter government service.
Second Industrial Revolution
Advances in technology and society that occurred from 1870-1914. New innovations in steel production, petroleum and electricity eventually led to the introduction and production of automobiles and airplanes.
Reign of Terror
(1793-1794) The period of most extreme violence during the French Revolution.
Seneca Falls Conference
The first women's rights convention in the United States. Held in July 1848 the meeting launched the women's suffrage movement.
Enlightenment concept of the agreement made by the people living in a state of nature to give up some of their rights in order for governments to be established.
Specialization of Labor
A system of organizing the manufacture of an article in a series of separate specialized operations, each of which is carried out by a different worker or group of workers.
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. It was later applied to moving machinery in factories and to powering ships and locomotives.
Universal Male Suffrage
The right of all dudes/guys within a given society to vote.
Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Written by the 18th-century British proto-feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, it is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy. It calls for the recognition of fundamental rights for women and their access to education.
The right of women by law to vote in national or local elections. In Great Britain it was first advocated by Mary Wollstonecraft in her book A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) and was demanded by the Chartist movement of the 1840s.
A member of a Polynesian group that settled New Zealand about 800 C.E./Movement among native Maori tribes that led to increased warfare with British, the selection of the first Maori king to prevent the selling of land to British settlers, and the emergence of new Maori religious movements.
Any tangible commodity produced and subsequently purchased to satisfy the current wants and perceived needs of the buyer. A marked increase in the consumption and variety of them by individuals from different economic and social backgrounds was a key effect of the Industrial Revolution.
The Russian parliament.
Dutch East India Company
Trading company founded in the Dutch Republic (present-day Netherlands) in 1602 to protect that state's trade in the Indian Ocean. As a result of corruption and debt it was dissolved in 1799 and control in Indonesia and Southeast Asia shifted to the Dutch government.
Control of a country's economy by the businesses of another nation.
Policy by which a government does not discriminate against imports or interfere with exports by applying tariffs (to imports) or subsidies (to exports). It came to what would become the United States as a result of American Revolutionary War and China as a result of the Treaty of Nanking (1842).
The emigration of some 12,000 to 14,000 Boers from Cape Colony in South Africa between 1835 and the early 1840s, in rebellion against the policies of the British government and in search of fresh pasturelands. It is regarded by Afrikaners as a central event of their 19th-century history and the origin of their nationhood.
Corporation established in 1865 to finance trade between Europe and Asia. Initially founded in the British colony of Hong Kong it benefited from the opening of China to trade, including the opium trade.
Indian National Congress
Political party that became the leader of the Indian nationalist movement.
Basic physical systems of a business or nation—transportation, communication, sewage, water, and electric systems for example. These systems tend to be high-cost investments and are vital to a country's economic development and prosperity.
Condition under which the loss that an owner (shareholder) of a business firm may incur is restricted to the amount of capital invested by him in the business and does not extend to his personal assets. Acceptance of this principle by business enterprises and governments was a vital factor in the development of large-scale industry, because it enabled business concerns to mobilize large amounts of capital from a wide variety of investors who were understandably unwilling to risk their entire personal fortunes in their investments.
Concept of U.S. territorial expansion westward to the Pacific Ocean that saw the occupation of the rest of the continent as a divine right of the American people. The term was used to justify the U.S. annexation of Oregon, New Mexico, and California and later U.S. involvement in Alaska, Hawaii, and the Philippines.
Indian power that existed from 1674 to 1818 and ruled over a large area of the Indian sub-continent. They are credited to a large extent for ending Mughal rule in India.
A body of doctrine developed in the mid-19th century that originally consisted of three related ideas: a philosophical anthropology, a theory of history, and an economic and political program. It has been understood and practiced by the various socialist movements, became the doctrine of many communist parties.
The restoration of the emperor in Japan in 1868 that began a program on industrialization and centralization of Japan following the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
(1823) Policy issued by the United States in which it declared that the Western Hemisphere was off limits to colonization by other powers.
Edible vegetable oil derived from the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm. By around 1870, it constituted the primary export of some West African countries.
In Marxist theory, the class of workers in an industrial society.
Male hairstyle worn by the Manchu people from central Manchuria and later imposed on the Han Chinese during the Qing dynasty. The Manchu hairstyle was significant because it became a symbol of Han submission to Qing rule. The hairstyle was compulsory for all males and the penalty for not complying was execution for treason.
Western European political philosophy during the nineteenth century; advocated democracy and reforms favoring lower classes.
In many Indian languages, it literally means Prince or Royalty though is often used to mean something more like the English term of empire: the period of direct colonial rule of India by the British Empire.
Revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalistic revolutions, most of them unsuccessful, that swept through Europe.
Southeast Asian nation (modern day Thailand) ruled by an absolute monarch. Never having been formally colonized it was influenced by British colonies to the west (Burma and India) and the French colonies to the east (French Indochina). Its economy was based on rice production. The state employed Western technical advisers and developed a legal system along Western lines. Bangkok was its capital.
A late nineteenth century movement in which the Chinese modernized their army and encouraged Western investment in factories and railways.
South Asian soldiers who served in the British army in India
Seven Years' War
(1756-1763) Conflict fought in Europe and its overseas colonies; in North America, known as the French and Indian War.
Distinct type of colonialism that functions through the replacement of indigenous populations with an invasive settler society that, over time, develops a distinctive identity and sovereignty.
Economic and political philosophy based on the idea that the benefits of economic activity should be equitably distributed throughout a society.
Financial instrument/place where investors buy and sell shares in public companies with the advantage that they provide a free flow of capital to finance industrial expansion
System of Checks and Balances
Constitutional system in which each branch of government places limits on the power of other branches.
The application of the philosophy of natural selection to human society.
West African Empire that became a part of northern Nigeria. It was founded by the charismatic Fulani Islamic scholar and political leader Usman dan Fodio upon his conquer of the Hausa people.
(1853-1864) Revolt in southern China against the Qing Empire.
Treaty of Nanking
(1842) Treaty ending the Opium War that ceded Hong Kong to the British.
A commercial enterprise that operates substantial facilities, does business in more than one country and does not consider any particular country its national home.
Corporation that developed oil palm plantations in West Africa and the Congo region of Africa. Backed by King Leopold's colonial forces of Belgium and financed by two brothers in Britain it would become one of the world's largest food corporations.
1857 revolt of Indian soldiers against the British caused by a military practice in violation of the Muslim and Hindu faiths.
(1884-1885) Meeting of European imperialist powers to divide Africa among them.
South Africans of Dutch descent.
(1889-1902) War between the British and Dutch over Dutch independence in South Africa; resulted in a British victory.
Revolt against foreign residents of China.
Legal, autonomous, tribal government in North America, recognized from 1794 to 1907, that consisted mainly of the Cherokee people of the southeastern United States and those Cherokees who relocated voluntarily and involuntary (Trail of Tears) to the Indian Territory.
Chinese Exclusion Act
First significant law restricting immigration into the United States. Many Americans on the West Coast attributed declining wages and economic ills to Chinese workers. Congress passed the exclusion act to placate worker demands and assuage prevalent concerns about maintaining white "racial purity."
Collection of laws that standardized French law under the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Congress of Vienna
Peace conference held after Napoleon's first exile (1814-1815). Presided over by Prince Klemens von Metternich it attempted to bring stability back to Europe by focusing on compensation, legitimacy, & balance of power.
In nineteenth-century Europe a movement that supported monarchies, aristocracies, and state-established churches.
The ability to combine the factors of land, labor, and capital to create factory production.
The right of foreigners to live under the laws of their home country rather than those of the host country.
Factors of production
Resources used in the production of goods and services.
First Opium War
(1839-1842) War between Great Britain and China that began with the Qing dynasty's refusal to allow continued opium importation into China; British victory resulted in the Treaty of Nanking.
Messianic religion or movement that was a response (or rebellion) to the subjugation of Native Americans by the U.S. government. It was an attempt to revitalize traditional culture and to find a way to face increasing poverty, hunger, and disease, all representing the reservation life of the Native Americans in the late nineteenth century.
The financial instrument or system by which the value of a currency was defined in terms of gold, for which the currency could be exchanged. The British were the first to formally adopt the gold standard in 1821 and generally abandoned by all countries in the Depression of the 1930s.
Bird droppings used as fertilizer; a major trade item of Peru in the late nineteenth century.
Conflict of the late 19th century between the forces of the Mahdist Sudanese of the religious leader Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah, who had proclaimed himself the "Mahdi" of Islam, and the forces of the Khedivate of Egypt, initially, and later the forces of Britain. The Battle of Omdurman was the decisive military engagement in which Anglo-Egyptian forces defeated the army of the Muslim Mahdists.
Violence against Jews in tsarist Russia.
Second Opium War
(1856-1856) Conflict where the British and French captured Beijing and forced China into a new round of unequal treaties, indemnities, and the opening of eleven more treaty ports. It also led to increased Christian missionary work and legalization of the opium trade.
(1894-95) Conflict between China and Japan for control of Korea in the late 19th century.
Spheres of influence
Divisions of a country in which a particular foreign nation enjoys economic privileges.
Man-made waterway connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean via the Red Sea that opened in 1869.
Nineteenth-century reforms by Ottoman rulers designed to make the government and military more efficient.
Tupac Amaru Rebellion
(1780-1783) Uprising in central Peru of native and mestizo peasants against the Bourbon reforms in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. The Spanish military proved to be too strong for the leader's army of 40,000-60,000 followers and ultimately it failed, however, when it became a violent battle between Indians and Europeans.
Revolution of 1905
Strikes by urban workers and peasants in Russia; prompted by shortages of food and by Russia's loss to Japan in 1905.
(1898) Conflict between the U.S. and Spain that began the rise of the U.S. as a world power. The U.S. gained possession of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines as a result.
Port of Buenos Aires
Capital of Argentina that was transformed into bustling port through the infusion of capital from British firms. Argentina became one of the world's principal exporters of agricultural products through exploitation of its fertile plains as a result.
White Australia Policy
Australia's approach to immigration beginning in the 1850s which favored applicants from certain countries (Anglo-Celtic or northern European). Chinese and Pacific Island immigrants were initially targeted for exclusion. In 1973 the government took final steps in the gradual process to remove race as a factor in Australia's immigration policies.
Xhosa Cattle Killing Movement
(1856-57) Situation where the Xhosa people of South Africa were told by a prophet-diviner to kill all their cattle, destroy their grain, and refrain from sowing crops. The resulting starvation and disruption broke the power of the Xhosa against encroaching white settlers.
Yaa Asantewaa War
(1900) Conflict, also known as the War of the Golden Stool, against the British by the Ashanti kingdom (modern day Ghana). Led by Yaa Asantewaa, the female queen, Ashanti remained a de facto independent state as a British protectorate.
Society founded in 1889 in the Ottoman Empire whose goal was to restore the constitution of 1876 and to reform the empire.
Large industrial organization created in Japan during the industrialization of the late nineteenth century.
Small kingdom in South Africa that gained world fame from the Anglo-Zulu War and for defeating the British at the Battle of Isandlwana in 1879. The British annexed Zululand in 1887, but the Zulu earned a reputation for their courage and skill as warriors.
In World War I, the nations of Great Britain, France, Russia, the United States, and others that fought against the Central Powers; in World War II, the group of nations including Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States, that fought against the Axis Powers.
The forced deportation and extermination of a Christian minority in the Ottoman Empire and the surrounding regions from 1915-1923. Between 600,000 and 1.5 million of them died, with many more forcibly removed from the country.
Policy of Great Britain and France of making concessions to Hitler in the 1930s.
A political community consisting of the United Kingdom, its dependencies, and former colonies of Great Britain that are now sovereign nations
In World War I, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire, and other nations who fought against the Allies.
A political movement that is characterized by extreme nationalism, one-party rule, and the denial of individual rights.
The severe worldwide economic downturn that began in the late 1920s and continued throughout the late 1930s throughout many regions in the world.
1918 Influenza Epidemic
The deadliest pandemic in modern history; it infected an estimated 500 million people worldwide-about one-third of the planet's population at the time-and killed an estimated 20 million to 50 million victims.
League of Nations
International organization founded after World War I to promote peace and cooperation among nations.
A type of colony in which the government is overseen by another nation, as in the Middle Eastern areas placed under European control after World War I.
Loyalty and devotion to a nation with a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations.
A 1945 meeting of the leaders of Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union in which it was agreed that the Soviet Union would be given control of eastern Europe and that Germany would be divided into zones of occupation.
The payment of war debts by the losing side.
South Africans who were descendants of the Dutch who settled in South Africa in the seventeenth century.
Spanish Civil War
A conflict from 1936 to 1939 that resulted in the installation of fascist dictator Francisco Franco as ruler of Spain; Franco's forces were backed by Germany and Italy, whereas the Soviet Union supported the opposing republican forces.
A 1943 meeting of leaders of the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union; participants agreed on the opening of a second front in France.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
The 1918 treaty ending World War I between Germany and the Russia.
Government established in Germany in 1919 and ending in 1933.
A meeting of the leaders of the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and the United States in 1945; the Soviet Union agreed to enter the war against Japan in exchange for influence in the Eastern European states. Participants also made plans for the establishment of a new international organization.
Instrument by which Japan secured temporary hegemony over China. Japan used its declaration of war against Germany (Aug. 1914) as grounds for invading Kiaochow, the German leasehold in Shandong prov., China. Disregarding the Chinese request to withdraw, Japan secretly presented (1915) President Yüan Shih-kai with an ultimatum.
Government of India Act
(1935) The last pre-independence constitution of the British Raj. It granted Indian provinces autonomy with direct elections being introduced for the first time. The right to vote increased from seven million to thirty-five million.
The South African policy of separation of the races.
U.S. President Roosevelt's program to relieve the economic problems of the Great Depression; it increased government involvement in the society of the United States.
British minister Lord Balfour's promise of support for the establishment of Jewish settlement in Palestine issued in 1917.
A conflict in which the participating countries devote all their resources to the war effort.
Founded in 1906 to better support demands of Muslims for separate electorates and legislative seats in Hindu-dominated India; represented division within Indian nationalist movement.
China's Nationalist political party founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1912 and based on democratic principles; in 1925, the party was taken over by Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek), who made it into a more authoritarian party.
The combination of several small farms into a large government-controlled farm. As a result of its implementation in the Soviet Union the "kulaks" (affluent peasant farmers) were targeted and eliminated by the Soviet government.
A U.S. plan to support the recovery and reconstruction of Western Europe after World War II.
New Economic Policy
Lenin's policy that allowed some private ownership and limited foreign investment to revitalize the Soviet economy. Affluent peasants called "kulaks" benefited greatly from its implementation.
May Fourth Movement
A 1919 protest in China against the Treaty of Versailles and foreign influence.
Five Year Plans
Policies for industrial production first introduced to the Soviet Union in 1928 by Stalin; they succeeded in making the Soviet Union a major industrial power by the end of the 1930s
Information or material spread to advance a cause or to damage an opponent's cause.
Form of government that severely limits individual freedoms by exercising an extremely high degree of control over public and private life and seeks to subordinate all aspects of individual life to the authority of the state.
Joseph Stalin's policy of exiling or killing millions of his opponents in the Soviet Union.
African National Congress
Black political organization within South Africa; pressed for end to policies of apartheid; sought open democracy leading to black majority rule; until 1990s declared illegal.
Afrikaner National Party
Emerged as the majority party in the all-white South African legislature after 1948; advocated complete independence from Britain; favored a rigid system of racial segregation called apartheid.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
International organization of ten Southeast Asian nations formed to accelerate economic growth, social progress, and cultural development and to promote peace and security in Southeast Asia.
The economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, which underwent rapid industrialization and maintained exceptionally high growth rates between the early 1960s (mid-1950s for Hong Kong) and 1990s.
Barrier that surrounded West Berlin and prevented access to it from East Berlin and adjacent areas of East Germany during the period from 1961 to 1989.
The tense diplomatic relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II.
Cold War policy of the United States whose purpose was to prevent the spread of communism.
Sudden overthrow of a government.
Dien Bien Phu
Most significant victory of the Viet Minh over French colonial forces in 1954; gave the Viet Minh control of northern Vietnam.
European Economic Community
Economic organization of European states set up in March 1957 to coordinate their economic policies and to establish common policies for agriculture, transport, the movement of capital and labor, the erection of common external tariffs, and the ultimate establishment of political unification.
Free Officers Movement
Military nationalist movement in Egypt founded in the 1930s that led a coup to seize the Egyptian government from the khedive in July 1952.
Great Leap Forward
The disastrous economic policy introduced by Mao Zedong that proposed the implementation of small-scale industrial projects.
India Constitution of 1950
Constitution that replaced the Government of India Act of 1935 and established the Republic of India. It declared India a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic nation, assuring its citizens justice, equality and liberty (outlawed castes & included reservation), and endeavors to promote fraternity.
International Monetary Fund
An international organization founded in 1944 to promote market economies and free trade.
Irish Republican Army
Nationalist organization devoted to the integration of Ireland as a complete and independent unit. To accomplish their goals some of its members have resorted to bombing attacks and assassinations in both Ireland and England.
Term coined by Winston Churchill for the political barrier isolating Soviet dominated Eastern Europe from Western Europe.
Military Industrial Complex
Network of individuals and institutions involved in the production of weapons and military technologies. The military-industrial complex in a country typically attempts to marshal political support for continued or increased military spending by the national government.
The policy of some developing nations to refrain from aligning with either the United States or the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Cultural/literature movement launched in 1930s and 1940s by French-speaking black graduate students from France's colonies in Africa and the Caribbean territories. These black intellectuals converged around issues of race identity and black internationalist initiatives to combat French imperialism and assert their cultural identity.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
A defense alliance between nations of Western Europe and North America formed in 1949.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Organization formed in 1960 by oil-producing countries to regulate oil supplies and prices.
Vaccine developed by Dr. Jonas Salk in 1953 that began the eradication of poliomyelitis, the virus that causes the disease of polio. By 1955, it was announced that the vaccine was effective and safe, and a nationwide (US) inoculation campaign began.
A 1968 program of reform to soften socialism in Czechoslovakia; it resulted in the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.
Brief war between Israel and a number of Arab states whereby Israel took over Jerusalem, the Golan Heights, the Sinai Peninsula, and the West Bank.
A 1947 statement by a U.S. president that pledged aid to any nation resisting communism.
Infectious disease that primarily affects the lungs. It spreads from one person to another through tiny droplets released into the air via coughs and sneezes. It was a leading cause of death in the U.S. in the 20th century. Currently one-quarter of the world's population is believed to have the disease (WHO-2018).
International organization formed in the aftermath of WW II that included all of the victorious Allies; its primary mission was to provide a forum for negotiating disputes.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
International document that states basic rights and fundamental freedoms to which all human beings are entitled. Proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 it includes civil and political rights, like the right to life, liberty, free speech and privacy and well as economic, social and cultural rights, like the right to social security, health and education.
U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1964
Landmark civil rights and U.S. labor law in the United States that outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It prohibits unequal application of voter registration requirements, racial segregation in schools, employment, and public accommodations.
Name given by the Diem regime to the communist guerilla movement in southern Vietnam; It became the National Liberation Front with northern Vietnamese assistance in 1958.
Communist-dominated Vietnamese nationalist movement; operated out of base in southern China during WW II; employed guerilla tactics similar to Maoists in China.
The 1955 agreement between the Soviet Union and the countries of eastern Europe in response to NATO.
Period in Iran from 1960-63 that marked a turning point in the development of the Iranian state. The Pahlavi regime promoted industrial expansion, land reform, liberalized laws concerning women, and secular courts and education.
An agency of the United Nations that offers loans to countries to promote trade and economic development.
World Trade Organization
Global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business
Terrorist group based in Afghanistan in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
Disease associated with the increased longevity of humans that is the most common type of dementia. A progressive disease it begins with mild memory loss and can lead to a loss of the ability to carry on a conversation and respond to the environment.
A traditional Muslim religious ruler or cleric.
Biafra Secessionist Movement
Failed war of independence of the Igbo (Ibo) people in Nigeria from 1967-70. It resulted in up to 3,000,000 deaths from warfare, disease, and starvation resulted.
Indian movie-making industry that began in Bombay (now Mumbai) in the 1930s and developed into an enormous film empire. It typically produces over 1,000 feature films annually and has grown in popularity with international audiences in the U.K. and the U.S.
The Cold War policy of the Soviet Union and the United States of threatening to go to war at a sign of aggression on the part of either power.
Unions of independent businesses in order to regulate production, prices, and the marketing of goods.
Policy in India in which access to seats of the various legislatures, government jobs, and enrollment in higher educational institutions are guaranteed based on quotas from historically disadvantaged castes and tribes. It was undertaken to address the historic oppression, inequality, and discrimination faced by those communities.
Infectious disease which can lead to dehydration and even death if untreated. A disease associated with poverty it is most common in places with poor sanitation, crowding, war, and famine. Common locations include parts of Africa, South Asia, and Latin America.
A temporary alliance of several countries or political parties within a government.
Chinese movement from 1966 to 1976 intended to establish an egalitarian society of peasants and workers.
An alliance, that began as the European Economic Community (or Common Market), of Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, to create a single economic entity across national boundaries in 1958; later it was joined by other European nations for further European economic integration.
The 1985 policy of Mikhail Gorbachev that allowed openness of expression of ideas in the Soviet Union.
When carbon dioxide (CO2) and other air pollutants collect in the atmosphere and absorb sunlight and solar radiation that have bounced off the earth's surface. These pollutants, which can last for years to centuries in the atmosphere, trap the heat and cause the planet to get hotter.
Green Belt Movement
Indigenous, grassroots, non-governmental organization founded in 1977 and based in Nairobi, Kenya. It takes a holistic approach to developing and focusing on environmental conservation, community development, and capacity building.
International group founded in 1971 that has raised awareness of important environmental issues. The group generally uses peaceful protest methods to illustrate its point, however, it has come under fire throughout its history for unorthodox and controversial approaches, as well.
A program of improved irrigation methods and the introduction of high-yield seeds and fertilizers and pesticides to improve agricultural production; it was especially successful in Asia but was also used in Latin America.
People from North Africa and Asia who migrated to Europe during the late 20th century in search of employment; some of them settled in Europe permanently.
A combination of Catholicism and socialism promoted (but not employed) in Latin America by some clergy and a few politicians. It was indication of an increased concern for social justice by the Catholic Church.
Swiss food and drink processing conglomerate corporation headquartered in Switzerland. It is the largest food company in the world, measured by revenues and other metrics (2014). Their products include: baby food, medical food, bottled water, breakfast cereals, coffee, tea, confectionery, dairy products, ice cream, frozen food, pet foods, & snacks.
North American Free Trade Agreement
An organization that prohibits tariffs and other trade barriers between Mexico, the United States, and Canada.
To bring under the ownership or control of a nation, as with industries and land.
National Liberation Front
Radical nationalist movement in Algeria; launched sustained guerilla was against France in the 1950s; success of tactics led to independence of Algeria in 1958.
National Organization of Women
U.S. organization founded in 1969 to campaign for women's rights.
The continuation of the economic model of colonialism after a colonized territory has achieved formal political independence. It is most often used with modern Africa.
The spread of nuclear weapons, nuclear weapons technology, or fissile material to countries that do not already possess them. The term is also used to refer to the possible acquisition of nuclear weapons by terrorist organizations or other armed groups.
A restructuring of the Soviet economy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev to allow some local decision making.
Quebecois Separatist Movement
Nationalist sentiment by some French Canadians who favor some form of enhanced status for Quebec: special status within confederation, a new form of association based on equality with English Canada, or complete independence as a sovereign country.
Style of popular music that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s and quickly emerged as the country's dominant music. By the 1970s it had become an international style that was particularly popular in Britain, the United States, and Africa.
Conflict that took place in Nicaragua from 1981-88 that began as a series of rebellions against the Sandinista government that had overthrown the Somoza dictatorship in 1979. It pitted the socialists on one side and U.S. backed right-wing rebel groups on the other.
Propaganda style of idealized realistic art developed in the Soviet Union that was its official style from 1932-88. It was characterized by the glorified depiction of communist values, such industry, agriculture, the military, and the emancipation of the proletariat.
Site in Beijing of a 1989 student protest in favor of democracy; the Chinese military killed a large number of protestors.
Ethnic group whose members live within Rwanda and Burundi and who formed the traditional aristocratic minority in both countries. They constituted about 9-14 percent of the population, but their numbers were greatly reduced by a government-inspired genocidal campaign in Rwanda in 1994.
A nation in which the government plays an active role in providing services such as social security to its citizens.
Fear and hatred of strangers or foreigners or of anything that is strange or foreign.
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L'alcool - Pourquoi les gens boivent?
Toxicology Session 3