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FST 1 - Midterm 2
Things I need to remember
Terms in this set (36)
What is heat transfer by conduction?
Molecular agitation within a material (without any motion of the material as a whole
Heat transfer between the burner and the pan
What is heat transfer by Convection?
Mass motion of a fluid such as air or water when the heated fluid is caused to move away from the source of heat, carrying energy with it
Hot water in an open boil
What is heat transfer by Radiation?
Thermal radiation is energy transfer by the emission of electromagnetic waves which carry energy away from the emitting object or toward an object that absorbs the energy
The radiation is in the infrared region
A pan over a open fire
What is forming Extrusion?
Forcing mixed ingredients through a die, which determines shape
May be heated, so that the product (extrudate) comes out pasteurized or cooked, with different texture
What are Prior-sanctioned substances?
Substances that FDA or USDA had determined safe for use in food prior to the 1958 amendment
What are GRAS substances?
Substances that are generally recognized as safe by experts, based on their extensive history of use in food before 1958 or based on published scientific evidence.
What is an antimicrobial agents/preservatives?
Compounds that suppresses microbial growth/activity and prevents deterioration of foods
Benzoate acid and Sorbic acid
What are antioxidants?
Compounds that protect against oxidative deterioration of vitamins & essential fatty acids in foods
Slow formation of off odors & extended shelf life
Slow the production of toxic by products of liquid oxides
What are bulking agents?
Bulking agents are used in food an beverage applications to increase weight and/or alter texture without the modification of flavor
Texture and thickness
What are stabilizers, gelling agents and thickeners?
Hydrocolloid material - can form gel when water is present
Used for unique textural, structural, and functional characteristics
What are emulsifiers?
Suspensions (or dospersions) of droplets of one liquid (the discreet or discontinuous phase) in another liquid (the continuous phase)
Foam - dispersions of gas in a liquid
Colloids - dispersions of solid particles in a liquid
What category does soy lecithin belong to?
Which category do sorbic acid and potassium sorbet belong to?
Which of the following is not true about stabilizers?
They increase rate of phase separation
What does Geosmin smell like and found in?
What does 2-Nonenal smell like and found in?
Cardboard, Oxidized butter
What does hexanal smell like and found in?
Grassy/Rancid, soil oil, reheated meat
What does skatole smell like and found in?
Feces, potato chips
What does methional smell like and found in?
just bad, light-struck milk
Describe and give examples of innate preferences vs learned preferences.
Taste - innate preference
Sweet or rejection (bitter) is
Smell - learned preference
Learn how what smells like what
What substance does umami come from?
Describe the different ways bacteria are classified. (General and with respect to food)
Which of the following organisms require nutrients, to grow and cause illness?
What are come examples of food-borne illness by intoxication?
Aflatoxin of Aspergillus flayus mold
What are some examples of food-borne illness by infection?
What are some non pathogenic organisms?
They do not cause foodborne illness in humans just causes food to spoil
What are probiotics and why are they important to human health?
Probiotics - live micro-organism which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host
Helps digest things
Keeps pH low to discourage pathogens
Provide nutrients to the host
Can protect the host during antibiotic therapy
Lots of other things we are only beginning to discover
What are prebiotics and why are they important to human health?
Prebiotics - are a type of fiber/nutrients that the human body cannot digest. They serve as food for probiotics, which are tiny living microorganism, including bacteria and yeast. Both prebiotics and probiotic may support helpful bacteria and other organism in gut
Sugars that are fermentable by probiotic organism
Not well used by the host
Synbiotics are foods that contain both probiotics and prebiotics
What are probiotic organism examples?
Lactic acid bacteria, lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium, Bacillus, Yeasts, Saccharomyces
The following can be defined as a probiotic
Living organism that may confer health benefit in adequate amounts
What is fermentation?
A process where a sugar is broken down into ethanol and carbon dioxide
What are the lactic acid bacteria?
Mesenteroids grows first producing LA and carbon dioxide
L. Brevis and the L. Plantarum grows producing more acid and lowering the pH to below 4.0
Which of the following accurately describes the production of vinegar?
Sugar to ethanol conversion by yeasts followed by ethanol conversion to vinegar by acetic acid bacteria
Describe the role of Penicillium roqueforti in cheese production
-Ripening and distinctive flavor of some cheeses: lipase enzyme production
- Produce blue cheeses
-Grown in veins throughout curd
- Flavors develop as lipids are broken down (Lipases) to methyl ketone
Structurally alters proteins
Why is salt important in the production of sauerkraut and fish sauce?
- Flavor preservation
- Extension of shelf life
- Draws the water out of the cabbage
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