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Psychology AP Chapter 18
Terms in this set (45)
Mayumi Combs (MC), #1, Pg. 695, chpt. 18
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
#2, Pg. 696, chpt. 18.
The theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
Fundamental Attribution Error
#3, Pg. 696, chpt. 18.
The tendency for observers, when analyzing another one's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
#4, Pg. 698, chpt. 18.
A belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
#5, Pg. 699, chpt. 18.
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
#6, Pg. 701, chpt. 18.
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistant.
#7, Pg. 703, chpt. 18.
Sharing up and down moods.
#8, Pg. 704, chpt. 18.
Adjusting one's behavior of thinking to coincide with a group standard.
#9, Pg. 705, chpt. 18.
A group's expectations regarding what is appropriate and acceptable for its members' attitudes and behaviors.
Normative social influence
#10, Pg. 705, chpt. 18.
Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
Informative social influence
#11, Pg. 705, chpt. 18.
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
#12, Pg. 707, chpt. 18.
Adherence to instructions from those of higher authority.
#13, Pg. 709, chpt. 18.
Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others: occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered.
#14, Pg. 710, chpt. 18.
The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
#15, Pg. 710, chpt. 18.
The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
#16, Pg. 711, chpt. 18.
The enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group.
#17, Pg. 712, chpt. 18.
The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
#18, Pg. 713, chpt. 18.
The power of one or two individuals to sway majorities.
#19, Pg. 714, chpt. 18.
An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude towards a group and its members; usually/generally involves stereotype beliefs.
#20, Pg. 714, chpt. 18.
A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
#21, Pg. 717, chpt. 18.
"Us"--people with whom one shares a common identity.
#22, Pg. 717, chpt. 18.
"Them"--those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.
#23, Pg. 717, chpt. 18.
The tendency to favor one's own group.
#24, Pg. 717, chpt. 18.
A small, exclusive group; a group held together by like interests or purpose.
#25, Pg. 717, chpt. 18.
The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
#26, Pg. 718, chpt. 18.
The tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
#27, Pg. 719, chpt. 18.
Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
#28, Pg. 721, chpt. 18.
The principle that frustration--the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal--creates anger, which can generate aggression.
#29, Pg. 724, chpt. 18.
A false assumption about rape such as "When a woman says 'no', she really means 'yes'."
#30, Pg. 724, chpt. 18.
The audio portion (narration) of a project that gives details and information about the topic; the words said aloud by the characters in the video.
#31, Pg. 727, chpt. 18.
A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
#32, Pg. 727, chpt. 18.
A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
#33, Pg. 729, chpt. 18.
Mere exposure effect
#34, Pg. 729, chpt 18.
The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
#35, Pg. 733, chpt 18.
An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
#36, Pg. 733, chpt 18.
The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
#37, Pg. 734, chpt 18.
A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
#38, Pg. 734, chpt 18.
Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
#39, Pg. 735, chpt. 18.
Unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
#40, Pg. 736, chpt. 18.
The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
Social Exchange Theory
#41, Pg. 737, chpt. 18.
The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
#42, Pg. 737, chpt. 18.
The expectation that we should return help, not harm, to those who have helped us.
Social Responsibility Norm
#43, Pg. 737, chpt. 18.
That we should help those who need our help, even if the costs outweigh the benefits.
#44, Pg. 738, chpt. 18.
Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
#45, Pg. 739, chpt. 18.
Graduate and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction--a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
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