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Developmental Theories (birth to 6year olds)
Terms in this set (13)
Refers to the psychological and emotional progression of the child and the relationships with others who are involved in the child. Included Sigmund Frued and Erik Erikson.
-Psycho social theorist.
-Development was influenced by biological instincts. Development of three essential aspects of the human personality: the id, the ego, and the superego.
-The initial aspect, the id, is the emotional part of the personality. It is present at birth. for example. the infant responds to all stimuli emotionally like crying, without thinking. During baby's first year, the ego begins to develop to provide balance between competing id and reality. The ego provide a sense of identity separate from others. Superego (3-6 years old) learns about rules and needs of others, conscience. for example, child obeys parents and picks up toys instead of keep playing because it learned right from wrong and it's not the center of attention.
-Psychosexual in nature.
-oral stage (birth-1 year) infant is fixated on oral curiosity, infancy derives pleasure from, and relieves anxiety through, oral sensations. for example, sucking first, moms breast, teething ring, pacifier to decrease anxiety and increase comfort.
-anal stage (1-3 years) with control of elimination (pooping) comes a desire to control other aspects in life and test boundaries. tries to escape boundaries. also called rapprochement.
-phallic stage (3-6 years) discovery of sexual difference and notices differences in genders. they want to marry mom or dad. also called oedipal period.
-Focused on the influence of social interaction. 8 stages of development. Mastery of each stage requires that the individual achieve a balance between two tasks (conflicting variables). Each stage represents a crisis that must be resolved to move on to the next stage in a healthy manner.
-Trust versus Mistrust (birth to 1 year): Task is for the infant to recognize that there are people (parents) who can be trusted to take care of their basic needs. Struggle is through realizing that not everyone or everything is safe. Trust leads to confidence in personal worth and CONNECTEDNESS to others. Failure=feelings of disconnectedness. Also failure to thrive, attachment disorders, problems with maintaining significant relationships.
-Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (1 to 3 years): Task is to balance independence against the risk of uncertainty. Child determines willpower and determination. Rules can result in internal conflict. the word no. Mastery. Being able to see yourself separate yourself. Child chooses their own food and clothes. Can do this attitude. Remember: set limits to protect their safety. Failure=self doubt later in life.
-Initiative versus guilt (3 to 6 years): child learns to be confident in trying new things. Making their own choices. Parents should encourage this for the child to gain a sense of purpose instead of holding them back. Learning new songs, jokes, games is a good initiative. If unment: may result in guilt and lack of resourcefulness.
John Bowlby & Mary Ainsworth
Focused on the bonding relationship between infant and caregiver.
Viewed as biological and evolutionary adaptation.
Infant develops attachment to mother or mother-subsitute as a means of surviving the vulnerability of infancy, rather than as a simple response to having biological needs met. mother is "Home-base" if infant frightened, will move on once that is reliable.
10-24 months exhibits patterns attachment:
secure attachment (baby cries when mom leaves and happy when mom returns), avoidant attachment (baby rarely cries when mom leaves and avoids mom upon return) and ambivalent attachment (baby becomes anxious proir to mother leaving and is very upset when mom leaves and seeks contact with her while pushing her away on return.
******Jean Piaget -cognitive
Thinking and learning for children take place through 4 stages.
1. Sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2).
During this time, cognition is thru the senses. The infant must achieve :
-separation (infant realizes there is no merging with familiar people)
-object permanence (knows object still exists when covered up; peek-a-boo)
-mental representation (infant has ability to use symbols to communicate).
2. Preoperational (ages 2-7)
Development of motor skills.
Toddler experiments and learns new behaviors; imitation; repetition. Likes order, not a disruption in routine. Still very egocentric (focuses only on her own sense of things ).
jean Piaget -moral
Progression of moral thinking in children based on the ability to reason and understand the environment.
First stage (children under 11 years) experience right and wrong as concrete, black and white concepts.
Pavlov-classical conditioning: understanding of development as a cognitive or learning process.
Two main types of learning theorists:
-behavioral-where learner is passive
-social-interaction between individual and environment.
Watson and Skinner: growth as responding to stimuli and adapting behaviors.
Thinking processes involved when making moral decisions. Identified three levels of moral development: preconventional, conventional, postconventional.
Within Preconventional level, there is stage 1: obedience and punishment, and stage 2: individualism and exchange.
Toddler identifies good and bad, right and wrong, by virtue (ACTIONS BASED ON )WHETHER THE CHILD IS REWARDED OR PUNISHED.
A major impetus for moral judgment is to avoid punishment. CHild may judge an action to be wrong only if caught. This child only guilty if the parent has seen his actions.
7 stages related to faith and spirtual development. Fowler defined faith outside the usual "religious" definition.
Stage 0: Undifferentiated (infancy) Pre-stage during which infant is learning "fundamentals of basic trust and relational experience of mutuality with the ones providing primary love and care. This foundation of trust sets the stage for developing a spiritual faith.
Stage 1: Initiative-protective (ages 2-6 or 7)
Became concerned that Kohlbergs studies of moral development were based only on norms for males. girls appeared weaker or slower to develop than males with compared using his. She identified two tracts of moral development. 1=autonomy and justice when men were interview. 2. Caring and relationship when women.
Family development theories.
8 stages. based on Erikson's individual stages of psycho social development and is the most well known.
Theory is based on the oldest child as the marker for transition into the next stage with the family development stage of family with infants. During this stage, a child is born and family adjusts to new structure. couple to parents. grandparents also.
Growth and development theories
theoretical approach: explains, describes and predicts the various aspects of growth and development.
Developmental domain refers to a way of understanding the total child in relation to the mind, body and spirit.
intelligence is the capacity for: learning, abstract thought, problem solving, self awareness.
Cultural and ethnicity diversity may influence perception of intelligence
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